Abundance of potentially pathogenic micro-organisms in Penaeus monodon larvae rearing systems in India.
Monodon baculovirls (MBV), external fouling organisms (EFO) and bacteria (especially Vibrio species) were monitored during 1996-1997 at nine different Penaeus monodon rearing hatcheries in India. Total cultivable heterotrophic bacteria, Vibrio-like-bacteria, presumptive Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio vulnificus counts were determined from shrimp eggs, post larvae, rearing tank water, source sea water, feed (Artemia nauplii and microencapsulated feed). The MBV infected post larvae and their environment showed higher Vibrio-like-bacteria than uninfected post larvae. An overwhelming predominance of presumptive Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio anguillarum was observed in post larval rearing tank water, MBV infected and uninfected post larvae. Vibrio-like-bacteria in Artemia nauplii clearly showed the possible source of these pathogenic bacteria in the hatchery environments. Quantitative analysis of Vibrio-like-bacteria in hatcheries revealed that when the Vibrio-like-bacteria increases to 2 x 10(2) CFU mortality of the post larvae occurs. Abundance of these micro-organisms in hatchery samples indicated that they are opportunistic pathogens which can invade the shrimp tissue, subsequently cause disease when the post larvae were under stressful conditions. (+info)
In vitro effects of the polyphenols resveratrol, mangiferin and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on the scuticociliate fish pathogen Philasterides dicentrarchi.
This study investigated the in vitro effects of the polyphenols resveratrol, mangiferin and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the histiophagous ciliate Philasterides dicentrarchi, which causes fatal scuticociliatosis in farmed turbot Scophthalmus maximus L. Of the 3 polyphenols, resveratrol showed strongest antiprotozoal activity, reducing ciliate density after 1 wk culture by, on average, 91% at 50 microM, and 96% at 500 microM. EGCG reduced ciliate density by, on average, 93% at 500 microM, with no significant effect at 50 microM. Mangiferin reduced ciliate density by, on average, 56% at 500 microM, again with no significant effect at 50 microM. In view of these findings, we discuss the potential utility of chemotherapy with polyphenols as a strategy for the control of scuticociliatosis in farmed turbot. (+info)
In vitro efficacy of new antiprotozoals against Philasterides dicentrarchi (Ciliophora, Scuticociliatida).
Philasterides dicentrarchi is a histiophagous ciliate that causes severe losses in turbot and sea bass farming. This study investigated the in vitro efficacy against P. dicentrarchi of 85 newly synthesized compounds and 12 commercial compounds, of which 2 are fluoroquinolones (norfloxacine and lomefloxacine) with known antibacterial activity. Seventeen of the newly synthesized compounds (2 naphthyridines, 2 pyridothienodiazines and 13 pyridothienotriazines) and the fluoroquinolone norfloxacin showed good activity. The most promising compound was the pyridothienotriazine 12k, with activity similar to that of the salicylanilides niclosamide and oxiclozanide (MLC 0.8 mg l(-1) in PBS, 1.5 mg l(-1) in seawater; MLC = minimum 24 h lethal concentration). (+info)
In vitro efficacy of glutaraldehyde-crosslinked chitosan microspheres against the fish-pathogenic ciliate Philasterides dicentrarchi.
Philasterides dicentrarchi is a protozoan ciliate which causes significant economic losses in fish aquaculture. This study investigated the effects of chitosan microspheres cross linked with glutaraldehyde and containing beta-cyclodextrin (betaCD) on the survival of this parasite in 7 d cultures. When used alone in assays, neither chitosan nor betaCD showed any activity, whereas free glutaraldehyde was strongly toxic to the parasite. Microspheres were likewise strongly toxic, at total glutaraldehyde concentrations much lower than with free glutaraldehyde: near-100% ciliate death was obtained (1) with 50 microg ml(-1) of microspheres prepared with 5% glutaraldehyde and no betaCD, or (2) with 10 microg ml(-1) of microspheres prepared with 0.15% glutaraldehyde and 0.1% betaCD. This suggests that the main active component is glutaraldehyde, but that the presence of small amounts of betaCD enhances efficacy. This high efficacy, together with the low toxicity to fish and rapid biodegradability of the individual components, suggest that these microspheres may be an attractive alternative to the formaldehyde baths traditionally used for the control of this parasite. (+info)
Complete small subunit rRNA gene sequence of the scuticociliate Miamiensis avidus pathogenic to olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.
Eight isolates of Miamiensis avidus (scuticociliates) were collected from olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus with symptoms of severe ulcers and haemorrhages at several culture farms in 1999 and 2003. Cloned strains were produced and the complete small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rRNA) of each strain was sequenced for classification and phylogenic study. The SSU rRNA is 1759 bp in length and the sequence was deposited in the GenBank under accession number AY550080. All 8 strains exhibited the same sequence, but this sequence did not match any previously deposited scuticociliate SSU rRNA sequence. Phylogenetic analysis placed Miamiensis avidus in a sister lineage to Cohnilembus verminus, Pseudocohnilembus hargisi and P. marinus. (+info)
Hyperparasitism of trichodinid ciliates on monogenean gill flukes of two marine fish.
Two unusual cases of hyperparasitism of trichodinid ciliates on monogenean gill flukes are described from southern Israel (Red Sea). The first case occurred in cultured European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax infected by Diplectanum aequans, while the second was observed in a feral devil firefish Pterois miles infected by Haliotrema sp. In both cases, the trichodinids heavily co-infested the host fish gills. The flukes were completely coated by the ciliates, which gave them a cobblestone appearance, but no damage to their tegument was apparent. Both cases are most likely a result of accidental hyperparasitism, brought about by perturbed environmental conditions. (+info)
Identification and partial characterisation of metalloproteases secreted by a Mesanophrys-like ciliate parasite of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus.
A ciliate parasite, tentatively identified as Mesanophrys sp. of Norway lobsters Nephrops norvegicus, is demonstrated to secrete several proteases into the culture medium (modified Nephrops saline). Analyses using substrate-impregnated sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed 12 activity bands differing greatly in mobility in the gels. The complete inhibition of proteolytic activity by 1,10-phenanthroline indicated that the proteases are of the metallo class. The proteases were active at the physiological temperature (8 degrees C) and haemolymph pH (7.8) of the host. The proteases were selective in the degradation of several host proteins, including the myosin heavy chain, which is a major structural component of lobster muscle. Consequently, these proteases may have important roles in several aspects of the host-parasite interaction including invasion, nutrient uptake by the ciliate, and pathogenesis. (+info)
Protozoan parasites in cultured mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis in the Thermaikos Gulf (north Aegean Sea, Greece).
The protozoans Ancistrum mytili (Oligohymenophorea: Ancistridae) and Marteilia refringens/maurini (Marteiliidea: Marteiliidae) were found parasitizing cultured mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis L. in the Thermaikos Gulf (north Aegean Sea, Greece). The former did not affect the condition index of infected mussels, in contrast to the latter, which did so and which also induced hemocyte infiltration in the affected digestive epithelium. The prevalence of both parasites was relatively high in a polluted area. (+info)