Effects of tumour necrosis factor-alpha on left ventricular function in the rat isolated perfused heart: possible mechanisms for a decline in cardiac function.
1. The cardiac depressant actions of TNF were investigated in the isolated perfused rat heart under constant flow (10 ml min(-1)) and constant pressure (70 mmHg) conditions, using a recirculating (50 ml) mode of perfusion. 2. Under constant flow conditions TNF (20 ng ml(-1)) caused an early (< 25 min) decrease in left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), which was maintained for 90 min (LVDP after 90 min: control vs TNF; 110 +/- 4 vs 82 +/- 10 mmHg, P < 0.01). 3. The depression in cardiac function seen with TNF under constant flow conditions, was blocked by the ceramidase inhibitor N-oleoylethanolamine (NOE), 1 microM, (LVDP after 90 min: TNF vs TNF with NOE; 82 +/- 10 vs 11 +/- 5 mmHg, P < 0.05). 4. In hearts perfused at constant pressure, TNF caused a decrease in coronary flow rate (change in flow 20 min after TNF: control vs TNF; -3.0 +/- 0.9 vs -8.7 +/- 1.2 ml min(-1), P < 0.01). This was paralleled by a negative inotropic effect (change in LVDP 20 min after TNF: control vs TNF; -17 +/- 7 vs -46 +/- 6 mmHg, P < 0.01). The decline in function was more rapid and more severe than that seen under conditions of constant flow. 5. These data indicate that cardiac function can be disrupted by TNF on two levels, firstly via a direct, ceramidase dependant negative inotropic effect, and secondly via an indirect coronary vasoconstriction. (+info)
Effect of ornithine and lactate on urea synthesis in isolated hepatocytes.
1. In hepatocytes isolated from 24 h-starved rats, urea production from ammonia was stimulated by addition of lactate, in both the presence and the absence of ornithine. The relationship of lactate concentration to the rate of urea synthesis was hyperbolic. 2. Other glucose precursors also stimulated urea production to varying degrees, but none more than lactate. Added oleate and butyrate did not stimulate urea synthesis. 3. Citrulline accumulation was largely dependent on ornithine concentration. As ornithine was increased from 0 to 40 mM, the rate of citrulline accumulation increased hyperbolically, and was half-maximal when ornithine was 8-12 mM. 4. The rate of citrulline accumulation was independent of the presence of lactate, but with pyruvate the rate increased. 5. The rate of urea production continued to increase as ornithine was varied from 0 to 40 mM. 6. It was concluded that intermediates provided by both ornithine and lactate are limiting for urea production from ammonia in isolated liver cells. It was suggested that the stimulatory effect of lactate lies in increased availability of cytosolic aspartate for condensation with citrulline. (+info)
Comparison of metabolism of free fatty acid by isolated perfused livers from male and female rats.
Livers from normal, fed male and female rats were perfused with different amounts of [1-14C]oleate under steady state conditions, and the rates of uptake and utilization of free fatty acid (FFA) were measured. The uptake of FFA by livers from either male or female rats was proportional to the concentration of FFA in the medium. The rate of uptake of FFA, per g of liver, by livers from female rats exceeded that of the males for the same amount of FFA infused. The incorporation by the liver of exogenous oleic acid into triglyceride, phospholipid, and oxidation products was proportional to the uptake of FFA. Livers from female rats incorporated more oleate into triglyceride (TG) and less into phospholipid (PL) and oxidation products than did livers from male animals. Livers from female rats secreted more TG than did livers from male animals when infused with equal quantities of oleate. The incorporation of endogenous fatty acid into TG of the perfusate was inhibite) by exogenous oleate. At low concentrations of perfusate FFA, however, endogenous fatty acids contributed substantially to the increased output of TG by livers from female animals. Production of 14CO2 and radioactive ketone bodies increased with increasing uptake of FFA. The partition of oleate between oxidative pathways (CO2 production and ketogenesis) was modified by the availability of the fatty acid substrate with livers from either sex. The percent incorporation of radioactivity into CO2 reached a maximum, whereas incorporation into ketone bodies continued to increase. The output of ketone bodies was dependent on the uptake of FFA, and output by livers from female animals was less than by livers from male rats. The increase in rate of ketogenesis was dependent on the influx of exogenous FFA, while ketogenesis from endogenous sources remained relatively stable. The output of glucose by the liver increased with the uptake of FFA, but no difference due to sex was observed. The output of urea by livers from male rats was unaffected by oleate, while the output of urea by livers from females decreased as the uptake of FFA increased. A major conclusion to be derived from this work is that oleate is not metabolized identically by livers from the two sexes, but rather, per gram of liver, livers from female rats take up and esterify more fatty acid to TG and oxidize less than do livers from male animals; livers from female animals synthesize and secrete more triglyceride than do livers from male animals when provided with equal quantities of free fatty acid. (+info)
Fatty acid translocase/CD36 mediates the uptake of palmitate by type II pneumocytes.
Type II pneumocytes, which synthesize, store, and secrete pulmonary surfactant, require exogenous fatty acids, in particular palmitic acid, for maximum surfactant synthesis. The uptake of palmitate by type II pneumocytes is thought to be protein mediated, but the protein involved has not been characterized. Here we show by RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis that rat type II pneumocytes express the mRNA for fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36), a membrane-associated protein that is known to facilitate the uptake of fatty acids into adipocytes. The deduced amino acid sequence from rat type II pneumocytes reveals 98% identity to the FAT/CD36 sequence obtained from rat adipocytes. The uptake of palmitate by type II pneumocytes follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics (Michaelis-Menten constant = 11.9 +/- 1.8 nM; maximum velocity = 62.7 +/- 5.8 pmol. min(-1). 5 x 10(5) pneumocytes(-1)) and decreases reversibly under conditions of ATP depletion to 35% of control uptake. Incubation of cells at 0 degrees C inhibited the uptake of palmitate almost completely, whereas depletion of potassium was without effect. Preincubation of the cells with bromobimane or phloretin decreases the uptake of palmitate significantly as does preincubation with sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate, the specific inhibitor of FAT/CD36 (C. M. Harmon, P. Luce, A. H. Beth, and N. A. Abumrad. J. Membr. Biol. 121: 261-268, 1991). From these data, we conclude that FAT/CD36 is expressed in type II pneumocytes and mediates the uptake of palmitate in a saturable and energy-dependent manner. The data suggest that the uptake process is independent of the formation of coated pits and endocytotic vesicles. (+info)
Production in vitro by the cytochrome P450 CYP94A1 of major C18 cutin monomers and potential messengers in plant-pathogen interactions: enantioselectivity studies.
The major C(18) cutin monomers are 18-hydroxy-9,10-epoxystearic and 9,10,18-trihydroxystearic acids. These compounds are also known messengers in plant-pathogen interactions. We have previously shown that their common precursor 9,10-epoxystearic acid was formed by the epoxidation of oleic acid in Vicia sativa microsomes (Pinot, Salaun, Bosch, Lesot, Mioskowski and Durst (1992) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 184, 183-193). Here we determine the chirality of the epoxide produced as (9R,10S) and (9S,10R) in the ratio 90:10 respectively. We further show that microsomes from yeast expressing the cytochrome P450 CYP94A1 are capable of hydroxylating the methyl terminus of 9,10-epoxystearic and 9,10-dihydroxystearic acids in the presence of NADPH to form the corresponding 18-hydroxy derivatives. The reactions were not catalysed by microsomes from yeast transformed with a void plasmid or in absence of NADPH. After incubation of a synthetic racemic mixture of 9,10-epoxystearic acid with microsomes of yeast expressing CYP94A1, the chirality of the residual epoxide was shifted to 66:34 in favour of the (9S,10R) enantiomer. Both enantiomers were incubated separately and V(max)/K(m) values of 16 and 3.42 ml/min per nmol of P450 for (9R, 10S) and (9S,10R) respectively were determined, demonstrating that CYP94A1 is enantioselective for the (9R,10S) enantiomer, which is preferentially formed in V. sativa microsomes. Compared with the epoxide, the diol 9,10-dihydroxystearic acid was a much poorer substrate for the omega-hydroxylase, with a measured V(max)/K(m) of 0.33 ml/min per nmol of P450. Our results indicate that the activity of CYP94A1 is strongly influenced by the stereochemistry of the 9, 10-epoxide and the nature of substituents on carbons 9 and 10, with V(max)/K(m) values for epoxide>>oleic acid>diol. (+info)
Dietary marine algae (Schizochytrium sp.) increases concentrations of conjugated linoleic, docosahexaenoic and transvaccenic acids in milk of dairy cows.
Modification of milk fat to contain long-chain (n-3) fatty acids and increased concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid has potential for improving health of consumers. Natural modification of milk through nutritional manipulation of diets for dairy cows is preferable to post-harvest modification. The objectives of this study were to increase the concentrations of beneficial fatty acids in milk fat by feeding a diet rich in (n-3) fatty acids from algae to dairy cows. Cows were fed a control diet, a diet containing algae (Schizochytrium sp.) protected against ruminal biohydrogenation, or a diet containing unprotected algae for 6 wk. Feed intake and milk production were recorded daily. Milk samples were obtained weekly for analysis of milk composition and profile of fatty acids. Percentage of fat in milk of cows fed algae was lower (P < 0.01) than in milk from cows fed the control diet; however, energy-corrected milk production did not differ (P > 0.05). Inclusion of algae in diets decreased (P < 0.01) feed intake. Milk fat from cows fed algae contained greater (P < 0.01) concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid, (n-3) fatty acids (particularly docosahexaenoic acid), and transvaccenic acid. Concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid were greater (P < 0.01) in milk fat from cows fed protected algae compared to milk fat from cows fed unprotected algae. Milk fat from cows fed algae contained lower (P < 0.05) concentrations of total saturated fatty acids compared to cows fed the control diet. In conclusion, milk fat can be modified through nutritional management of dairy cows to provide more favorable fatty acids for consumers. (+info)
The preventive effects of incomplete Freund's adjuvant and other vehicles on the development of adjuvant-induced arthritis in Lewis rats.
The present study showed a novel finding that the development of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) in Lewis rats was completely prevented by incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) injected 21 or 28 days before complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) challenge. Hexadecane also completely prevented AA and squalane, methyl oleate and pristane moderately prevented AA, though pristane by itself induced mild arthritis in two out of five rats. Concanavalin A-stimulated lymph node cells (LNCs) isolated from AA rats were able to adoptively transfer the severe polyarthritis to all the naive recipients or even to the IFA pretreated recipients with earlier onset and more rapid progression than those of AA. The LNCs from the donors who had been pretreated with IFA and subsequently challenged with CFA could induce mild arthritis in only two out of eight naive recipients, whereas all the recipients who were challenged with CFA immediately after intravenous injection of these LNCs developed significantly less severe arthritis. However, the LNCs from IFA-pretreated donors failed to prevent AA. According to the T helper type 1 (Th1)/Th2 paradigm, it was suggested that the adjuvant-active vehicles such as IFA, hexadecane, squalane, methyl oleate and pristane, can affect and deviate the Th1/Th2 balance of immune responses in host. CFA could promote the propagation of Th2 cells rather than Th1 cells in these vehicle-pretreated rats through as yet undetermined mechanisms, eventually resulting in the prevention of AA. Finally, we discussed a regulatory role of adjuvant vehicles for induction and suppression of AA. (+info)
Adipose tissue triacylglycerols of rats are modulated differently by dietary isomeric octadecenoic acids from coriander oil and high oleic sunflower oil.
Earlier feeding studies of rats revealed that petroselinic acid [18:1(n-12)] from triacylglycerols of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) oil is extensively incorporated into the lipids of heart and liver and metabolized via beta-oxidation and chain elongation. We report here the composition and stereospecific distribution of acyl moieties, particularly isomeric octadecenoyl moieties, in adipose tissue triacylglycerols of male weaned Wistar rats fed diets containing, in addition to 20 g corn oil/kg feed, 120 g coriander oil per kg feed at a level of 63 g 18:1(n-12) moieties/100 g acyl moieties of the oil for 10 wk. For comparison, a group of rats was fed a similar corn oil-containing isocaloric diet with large proportions of oleoyl moieties [18:1(n-9)] from high oleic sunflower oil [72 g 18:1(n-9)/100 g acyl moieties of the oil]. The composition of the triacylglycerols of epididymal, subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues was very similar for each feeding group, broadly reflecting the composition of the dietary oils. Feeding coriander oil, compared with high oleic sunflower oil, led to extensive incorporation of 18:1(n-12) into the triacylglycerols of the adipose tissues with a concomitant significantly and dramatically lower 18:1(n-9) concentration and, as a consequence, to the generation of triacylglycerol species containing 18:1(n-12) moieties. Petroselinoyl moieties from coriander oil were esterified predominantly at the sn-1,3 positions of the adipose tissue triacylglycerols; 18:1(n-9) moieties from high oleic sunflower oil were fairly evenly distributed between the sn-1,3 and sn-2 positions. We suggest that acyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of adipose tissue triacylglycerols direct 18:1(n-12) moieties preferentially to sn-1,3-positions. (+info)