In vitro evaluation of secoiridoid glucosides from the fruits of Ligustrum lucidum as antiviral agents.
Six secoiridoid glucosides, lucidumoside C (1), oleoside dimethylester (2), neonuezhenide (3), oleuropein (4), ligustroside (5) and lucidumoside A (6), isolated from the fruits of Ligustrum lucidum (Oleaceae), were examined in vitro for their activities against four strains of pathogenic viruses, namely herpes simplex type I virus (HSV-1), influenza type A virus (Flu A), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and parainfluenza type 3 virus (Para 3). Antiviral activities were evaluated by the cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibitory assay. The purpose was to check if the antioxidative potency of these glucosides correlated with their antiviral potency. Results showed that none of the glucosides had any significant activity against HSV-1 and Flu A. Oleuropein, however, showed significant antiviral activities against RSV and Para 3 with IC50 value of 23.4 and 11.7 microg/ml, respectively. Lucidumoside C, oleoside dimethylester and ligustroside showed potent or moderate antiviral activities against Para 3 with IC50 values of 15.6-20.8 microg/ml. These results also documented that the anti-oxidative potency of these secoiriodoid glucosides was not directly related to their antiviral effects. (+info)
Studies on the constituents of Syringa species. X. Five new iridoid glycosides from the leaves of Syringa reticulata (Blume) Hara.
Five new iridoid glycosides, (8Z)-ligstroside (1), (8Z)-nuzhenide (3), 6'-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosylsyringopicroside (4), 3'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylsyringopicroside (5) and 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylsyringopicroside (6) were isolated, together with a known one, (8E)-nuzhenide (2), from the leaves of Syringa reticulata. Their structures were established on the basis of chemical and spectral data. Compounds 1 and 3 are the first findings of a (8Z)-oleoside-type secoiridoid. Compound 4 is the first naturally occurring iridoid di-glycoside having an isomaltose. (+info)
An investigation of the seasonal pattern of mannitol content in deciduous and evergreen species of the oleaceae growing in northern Sicily.
In several species of the Oleaceae, mannitol, already present at considerable levels, accumulates in response to stress. This family comprises both deciduous and evergreen species, and we investigated the role of mannitol in deciduous malacophyll and evergreen sclerophyll species growing under the same conditions in the field. The relationship between mannitol content and changes in rainfall or temperature was also studied. The mannitol content of leaves of Fraxinus ornus L., F. angustifolia Vahl., Olea europaea L. and Phillyrea media L. was determined by gas chromatography. Leaf samples were collected once a month for 1 year. In the two ash species, the seasonal pattern of mannitol content appeared the same: a gradual increase in spring, peaking in summer, followed by a gradual decrease. The mannitol content was similar in both species, ranging between 260 and 720 micromol g(-1) d. wt. The seasonal pattern of mannitol content in Olea and Phillyrea was similar for both species, but unlike that of Fraxinus did not show a summer peak. Rainfall was negatively correlated with the seasonal increase of mannitol content in ash. Mannitol content increased gradually during drought, reaching a maximum value at the end of the dry season. Temperature did not have a direct influence on mannitol content. In Olea and Phillyrea, variations in mannitol content were poorly correlated with rainfall or temperature, indicating that mannitol does not have a primary role in the response of these species to the hot, dry summer conditions. (+info)
(-)-olivil and (+)-1-acetoxypinoresinol from the olive tree (Olea europaea Linne; Oleaceae) as feeding stimulants of the olive weevil (Dyscerus perforatus).
Guided by a feeding stimulant activity test on the olive weevil (Dyscerus perforatus), two compounds that showed potent feeding stimulant activity were isolated from the olive tree (Olea europaea). Based on their spectral data and a literature survey, they were identified as (-)-olivil (1) and (+ )-1-acetoxypinoresinol (2). The activities of these minor lignans were significantly higher for the female than for the male weevil. (+info)
Antifungal 3-hydroxy fatty acids from Lactobacillus plantarum MiLAB 14.
We report the identification and chemical characterization of four antifungal substances, 3-(R)-hydroxydecanoic acid, 3-hydroxy-5-cis-dodecenoic acid, 3-(R)-hydroxydodecanoic acid and 3-(R)-hydroxytetradecanoic acid, from Lactobacillus plantarum MiLAB 14. The concentrations of the 3-hydroxy fatty acids in the supernatant followed the bacterial growth. Racemic mixtures of the saturated 3-hydroxy fatty acids showed antifungal activity against different molds and yeasts with MICs between 10 and 100 micrograms ml-1. (+info)
The role of staminate flowers in the breeding system of Olea europaea (Oleaceae): an andromonoecious, wind-pollinated taxon.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Andromonoecy, as a breeding system, has generated a considerable body of theory in terms of sexual selection, but extended records comparing the performance of pollen grains from staminate versus hermaphrodite flowers are still sparse. The objective in this study was to elucidate the role of staminate flowers in the andromonoecious breeding system of olive (Olea europaea). METHODS: To determine the meaning of staminate flowers, an evaluation was made of resource allocation to, and phenology of, staminate and hermaphrodite flowers in the cultivar 'Mission', and a comparison was made of the male function between both kinds of flowers. KEY RESULTS: Dry weight of hermaphrodite flowers was 19 % greater than dry weight of staminate flowers arising in comparable positions of the panicle. This difference was mainly due to pistil and petal weight; there were no significant differences in stamen weight. There were no significant differences between staminate and hermaphrodite flowers in either amount of pollen per anther, or pollen quality as determined by pollen viability, germinability or ability to fertilize other flowers. There was no significant link between gender and time of anthesis. However, position of the flower within the panicle correlated with time of anthesis and gender. Flowers at the apex and at primary pedicels tended to be hermaphrodite and open earlier, whereas flowers arising in secondary pedicels were mainly staminate and were commonly the last to reach anthesis. CONCLUSIONS: It is proposed that the main advantage provided by production of staminate flowers in olive is to enhance male fitness by increasing pollen output at the whole plant level, although a relict function of attracting pollinators cannot be completely discarded. (+info)
Gene relocations within chloroplast genomes of Jasminum and Menodora (Oleaceae) are due to multiple, overlapping inversions.
The chloroplast (cp) DNA sequence of Jasminum nudiflorum (Oleaceae-Jasmineae) is completed and compared with the large single-copy region sequences from 6 related species. The cp genomes of the tribe Jasmineae (Jasminum and Menodora) show several distinctive rearrangements, including inversions, gene duplications, insertions, inverted repeat expansions, and gene and intron losses. The ycf4-psaI region in Jasminum section Primulina was relocated as a result of 2 overlapping inversions of 21,169 and 18,414 bp. The 1st, larger inversion is shared by all members of the Jasmineae indicating that it occurred in the common ancestor of the tribe. Similar rearrangements were also identified in the cp genome of Menodora. In this case, 2 fragments including ycf4 and rps4-trnS-ycf3 genes were moved by 2 additional inversions of 14 and 59 kb that are unique to Menodora. Other rearrangements in the Oleaceae are confined to certain regions of the Jasminum and Menodora cp genomes, including the presence of highly repeated sequences and duplications of coding and noncoding sequences that are inserted into clpP and between rbcL and psaI. These insertions are correlated with the loss of 2 introns in clpP and a serial loss of segments of accD. The loss of the accD gene and clpP introns in both the monocot family Poaceae and the eudicot family Oleaceae are clearly independent evolutionary events. However, their genome organization is surprisingly similar despite the distant relationship of these 2 angiosperm families. (+info)
Associations among pollen sensitizations from different botanical species in patients living in the northern area of Madrid.
OBJECTIVE: To determinate the existence of associations among sensitizations to antigens produced by pollen grains of different botanical species as assessed by skin prick tests in patients with respiratory disorders. METHODS: Six hundred twenty nine consecutive patients living in the northern area of Madrid who underwent clinical evaluation because of rhinoconjunctivitis, and/or asthma were studied. All patients were tested with a skin prick test using a battery of inhalants including pollens, dust mites, molds and danders. The exploratory multivariate technique of Multiple Correspondence Analysis was used to compare the homogeneity of sensitizations between groups. Of the 629 patients, 459 (73.0%) had positive skin prick tests to pollen and were selected as the study group. RESULTS: The most prevalent pollen sensitization was to Gramineae pollen (83.7%) followed by Oleaceae sensitisation (75.8%). Multiple Correspondence Analysis revealed the existence of an association among pollen sensitizations, showing that they clustered two groups: sensitizations to Gramineae, Oleaceae, Cupressaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Plantaginaceae (group I), and sensitizations to Betulaceae, Platanaceae, Compositae (group II). Sensitization to Parietaria was not included in any of the sensitization groups and showed an independent behaviour. CONCLUSION: Pollen sensitizations in our area cluster into two association groups which have not previously been reported. (+info)