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(1/219) The length and eruption rates of incisor teeth in rats after one or more of them had been unimpeded.

The eruption rate and length of all four incisor teeth in rats were measured under ether anaesthesia by recording the position of marks on their labial surfaces at 2-day intervals, using calibrated graticules in microscope eyepieces. The rats were divided into four groups and either a lower, an upper, both a lower and an upper, or no incisors were unimpeded. This paper describes the changes when the unimpeded incisors returned to the occlusion. Neither the unimpeded nor the impeded incisors simply returned to control values immediately the period of unimpeded eruption ended, but showed transient changes in their lengths and eruption rates. The results confirm that eruption rates are determined by the sum of the lengths of the lower and upper incisors, rather than by their own lengths, with longer teeth erupting more slowly. Specifically, restoring the bevel to the incisors did not slow their eruption below normal impeded rates. The slowing of the eruption of the longer of two adjacent incisors was related to the length differences of the incisors in the same jaw, not to the sum of the differences in both jaws. Contact with the contralateral incisor in the opposite jaw slowed the eruption of an incisor more than contact with the ipsilateral incisor.  (+info)

(2/219) The influence of maxillary incisor inclination on arch length.

This ex vivo study was designed to investigate Andrews' hypothesis that there is a space implication when incisors are torqued correctly. A working model was constructed to allow acrylic typodont incisors of varying known values of inclination to be substituted into the model. The arch lengths of the various 'set-ups' were measured using a reflex microscope linked to a PC. In order to quantify the space requirement of clinical relevance for adequate incisor torque, the method was repeated by substituting replicas of patients' 'natural' incisors. For both acrylic and natural incisors it was found that, as the inclination of the teeth increased, there was an increase in all arch lengths, this being greater for the natural incisors. This larger increase for the natural incisors was related not only to their increased size, but was also dependent on the morphology of the incisor. Those incisors which were parallel-sided showed the greatest increase in arch length, whereas the incisors that were relatively triangular in shape showed the smallest increase. When the inclination of an 'average' set of 21/12 is increased by 5 degrees, an increase in the arch length of approximately 1 mm may be expected.  (+info)

(3/219) Evaluation of apical root resorption following extraction therapy in subjects with Class I and Class II malocclusions.

The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of root resorption during orthodontic treatment, and to examine the relationship between tooth movement and apical root resorption. Twenty-seven Class I and 27 Class II patients treated with edgewise mechanics following first premolar extractions were selected. The following measurements were made on the pre- and post-treatment cephalograms: upper central incisor to palatal plane distance, the inclination of upper central incisor to the FH and AP planes, the perpendicular distances from the incisor tip to the AP and PTV planes, and incisor apex to PTV. The amount of apical root resorption of the maxillary central incisors was determined for each patient by subtracting the post-treatment tooth length from the pre-treatment tooth length measured directly on cephalograms. Intra-group differences were evaluated by the Student's t-test and inter-group differences by the Mann-Whitney U-test. For correlations the Pearson correlation coefficient was used. The results show that there was a mean of approximately 1 mm (P < 0.01) of apical root shortening in Class I patients, but in Class II division I subjects the mean root resorption was more than 2 mm (P < 0.001). The inter-group differences were statistically significant. No significant correlations were found between the amount of apical root resorption and tooth inclination, or the duration of active treatment.  (+info)

(4/219) The effect of tooth position on the image of unerupted canines on panoramic radiographs.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether panoramic tomograms, which are routinely used in orthodontic practice, can provide adequate information to localize an impacted canine. The effect of changes in position and inclination of an impacted canine on orthopantomograms was investigated in an experimental set-up. An upper canine was removed from a human skull and replaced in a positioning system, enabling simulated positional variations in impactions. In comparison with the image of a contralateral well-aligned canine, the length of the impacted tooth always decreased or remained unchanged, whereas the tooth width increased or remained unchanged. The angulation of the image was unaffected by varying the position of the impacted canine, but altered when the inclination of the tooth in a sagittal or frontal direction was changed. If there was any transversal shift of the impacted canine on the orthopantomogram, it was always towards the mid-sagittal plane. The curvature of the tooth increased after dorsal inclination and decreased after ventral inclination (in comparison with the contralateral well-aligned canine).  (+info)

(5/219) Long-term follow-up of maxillary incisors with severe apical root resorption.

The purpose of the study was to analyse the mobility of teeth with severe orthodontically induced root resorption, at follow-up several years after active treatment, and to evaluate mobility in relation to root length and alveolar bone support. Seventy-three maxillary incisors were examined in 20 patients, 10-15 years after active treatment in 13 patients (age 24-32 years) and 5-10 years after active treatment in seven patients (age 20-25 years). All had worn fixed or removable retainers; seven still had bonded twistflex retainers. Total root length and intra-alveolar root length were measured on intra-oral radiographs. Tooth mobility was assessed clinically according to Miller's Index (0-4) and the Periotest method. Crestal alveolar bone level, periodontal pocket depth, gingival, and plaque indices, occlusal contacts during occlusion and function, and dental wear were recorded. There was a significant correlation (P < 0.05) between tooth mobility, and total root length and intra-alveolar root length. No correlation was found between tooth mobility and retention with twistflex retainers. None of the variables for assessment of periodontal status, occlusion and function were related to total root length or tooth mobility. It is concluded that there is a risk of tooth mobility in a maxillary incisor that undergoes severe root resorption during orthodontic treatment, if the remaining total root length is < or = 9 mm. The risk is less if the remaining root length is > 9 mm. Follow-up of teeth with severe orthodontically induced root resorption is indicated.  (+info)

(6/219) Development of a new high-speed measuring system to analyze the dental cast form.

A new non-contact measurement system employing of a line laser and CCD camera was developed to rapidly measure maloccluded dental casts with large depth and high accuracy. In this system, the measuring interval along the line laser and the model scanning direction perpendicular to the line laser were both 0.2 mm. By averaging the raw data through repetitious input and smoothing by local filtering, the noise was effectively decreased. Sub-pixel processing, which calculates the pixel position with the largest brightness within one pixel, improved the accuracy in the measurement to 22 microns compared with 65 microns before sub-pixel processing. Dental casts with malocclusion were measured with this system. The time and the depth for the measurement were about 10 minutes and 60 mm, respectively. This was a vast improvement compared with our previous system employing a point laser. In the CG of the measured dental casts, smooth and detailed surface morphology were sufficiently reproduced, and recognition of the characteristic points in the cast could be accomplished with the accuracy of 30 microns. This measurement system will be helpful to analyze the dental cast form with malocclusion in progress.  (+info)

(7/219) Mixed dentition space analysis in a Thai population.

This study produced simple linear regression equations to be used for mixed dentition space analysis for males and females, and sexes pooled in a population living in northeastern Thailand. Measurements of teeth were made to within 0.01 mm on the dental casts of 215 boys and 215 girls (mean age 15.7 years). All dentitions were required to be free of any signs of dental pathology or anomalies. It was found that males had significantly larger teeth than females as represented by summations of mandibular incisor, canine, and premolar widths. ANOVA of regression indicated a close relationship between mandibular incisor summation and corresponding summations of canine and premolars. The low coefficients of determination (r2) of the regressions ranged between 0.29 and 0.42, and were higher for females than males, which might be attributable to the ethnic diversity of the sampled population. The regression equations produced predictions of mesio-distal width summations for maxillary and mandibular canine, and premolar arch segments that were slightly different from other reported Asian studies. Moyers' prediction tables at the 50th percentile were found to under-estimate tooth size summation compared with the present investigation. The predictions from simplified regression equations matched well with those of this study for sexes pooled, and for males and females separately.  (+info)

(8/219) Effect of rapid maxillary expansion on skeletal, dental, and nasal structures: a postero-anterior cephalometric study.

The purpose of this study was to compare the transverse dimensions of skeletal, dental, and nasal structures of a group of patients with maxillary narrowness before and after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) with an untreated control group using postero-anterior (PA) cephalometric radiographs. The material consisted of PA cephalograms of 25 children with a posterior crossbite (mean age 13 years 4 months), and 25 age- and sex-matched controls (mean age 13 years 11 months). Both groups consisted of 20 females and five males. Thirty-four reference points were digitized using the Dentofacial Planner software program. The 17 variables studied consisted of six skeletal, four dental, and seven intra-nasal linear measurements. Student's t-tests were used to compare the differences between the groups, and the effect of RME on skeletal, dental, and nasal structures. RME produced small, but statistically significant changes in maxillary width, upper and lower molar widths, the width between upper central incisor apices, and intra-nasal width. When compared with previous studies, the changes observed were similar for patients of a similar age group, but less than reported for a younger population. There is some evidence that the pattern of expansion produced by RME will vary depending on the age and maturity of the subject.  (+info)