Mycotoxin determinations on animal feedstuffs and tissues in Western Canada.
Results of examination of specimens of plant or animal origin for various mycotoxins are presented. Analyses for aflatoxins and ochratoxins were most frequently requested, usually on the basis of visible mouldiness. Aflatoxin B1 was found in one of 100 specimens at a level of 50 ppb in a sample of alfalfa brome hay. Ochratoxin A was detected in seven of 95 specimens comprising six samples of wheat at levels between 30 and 6000 ppb and one sample of hay at a level of 30 ppb. An overall detection rate of 4.2% involving significant levels of potent mycotoxins suggests that acute or chronic mycotoxicoses may occur in farm livestock or poultry more frequently than presently diagnosied. (+info)
Serum levels of ochratoxin A in healthy adults in Tuscany: correlation with individual characteristics and between repeat measurements.
Ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin widely contaminating staple foods and beverages, has been classified as a "possible human carcinogen (Group 2B)" by the IARC. Serum levels of OTA were measured in a group of 138 healthy adults (age, 35-65 years) living in the area surrounding Florence (Tuscany, central Italy) and detected in all but four samples (97%). After the exclusion of one subject with a peak value of 57.2 ng/ml, OTA levels ranged between 0.12 and 2.84 ng/ml, with mean and median values of 0.56 and 0.48 ng/ml, respectively. OTA levels were significantly higher in men than in women (0.64 versus 0.50) and correlated positively with height. A strong association was found with the season in which blood samples were obtained, with summer values higher than autumn values. On the other hand, OTA levels tended to be negatively associated with blood pressure, either systolic or diastolic; no association was evident with age, weight, body mass index, and smoking history. The associations with height and season persisted in a multivariate regression analysis. A subgroup of subjects provided a repeat blood sample approximately 1 year later. The Spearman correlation coefficient between 68 pairs of original and repeat measurements was practically null (r = 0.05). Only two subjects (2.9%) had OTA levels of >1 ng/ml on both occasions. These results suggest that OTA contamination is widespread in foods consumed by this population, in agreement with previous reports from Italy and other countries. A strong seasonal variation, which possibly differs from year to year, was observed. OTA serum levels are a short-term biomarker with a high within-subject variability; therefore they have limited use at the individual level but can be used to characterize populations or subgroups of subjects. Additional analyses are needed to explore the dietary determinants of OTA levels in this population. (+info)
Polyspecific substrate uptake by the hepatic organic anion transporter Oatp1 in stably transfected CHO cells.
The rat liver organic anion transporting polypeptide (Oatp1) has been extensively characterized mainly in the Xenopus laevis expression system as a polyspecific carrier transporting organic anions (bile salts), neutral compounds, and even organic cations. In this study, we extended this characterization using a mammalian expression system and confirm the basolateral hepatic expression of Oatp1 with a new antibody. Besides sulfobromophthalein [Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of approximately 3 microM], taurocholate (Km of approximately 32 microM), and estradiol- 17beta-glucuronide (Km of approximately 4 microM), substrates previously shown to be transported by Oatp1 in transfected HeLa cells, we determined the kinetic parameters for cholate (Km of approximately 54 microM), glycocholate (Km of approximately 54 microM), estrone-3-sulfate (Km of approximately 11 microM), CRC-220 (Km of approximately 57 microM), ouabain (Km of approximately 3,000 microM), and ochratoxin A (Km of approximately 29 microM) in stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In addition, three new substrates, taurochenodeoxycholate (Km of approximately 7 microM), tauroursodeoxycholate (Km of approximately 13 microM), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (Km of approximately 5 microM), were also investigated. The results establish the polyspecific nature of Oatp1 in a mammalian expression system and definitely identify conjugated dihydroxy bile salts and steroid conjugates as high-affinity endogenous substrates of Oatp1. (+info)
Molecular cloning and characterization of a new multispecific organic anion transporter from rat brain.
A cDNA encoding the new member of the multispecific organic anion transporter family, OAT3, was isolated by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction cloning method. Degenerate primers were designed based on the sequences conserved among OAT1, OAT2, and organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed using rat brain poly(A)+ RNA. The 536-amino acid protein sequence encoded by OAT3 showed 49, 39, and 36% identity to those of OAT1, OAT2, and OCT1, respectively. Northern blot analysis revealed that rat OAT3 mRNA is expressed in the liver, brain, kidney, and eye. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, OAT3 mediated the uptake of organic anions, such as p-aminohippurate (Km = 65 microM), ochratoxin A (Km = 0.74 microM), and estrone sulfate (Km = 2.3 microM) and a cationic compound, cimetidine. OAT3-mediated uptake of [3H]estrone sulfate was sodium-independent. para-Aminohippuric acid, estrone sulfate or ochratoxin A did not show any trans-stimulatory effect on either influx or efflux of [3H]estrone sulfate via OAT3. Organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein, probenecid, indocyanine green, bumetanide, piroxicam, furosemide, azidodeoxythymidine, 4, 4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-3,3'-disulfonic acid, and benzylpenicillin inhibited OAT3-mediated estrone sulfate uptake, while ouabain and digoxin did not. Organic cations such as tetraethylammonium, guanidine, verapamil, and quinidine did not interact with OAT3. Acidic metabolites of neurotransmitters derived from dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and serotonin inhibited the uptake of estrone sulfate via OAT3. These results suggest an important role of OAT3 in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain. (+info)
Transport of ochratoxin A by renal multispecific organic anion transporter 1.
In the present study, we investigated the transport of ochratoxin A (OTA) by kidney-specific organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1). When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, OAT1 mediated sodium-independent uptake of OTA (Km = 2.1 microM). Piroxicam, which has been shown to prevent the nephrotoxicity of OTA, inhibited OAT1-mediated uptake of OTA. By contrast, another protective compound, aspartame, did not. Using a cell line derived from the mouse kidney terminal proximal tubule (S3) transfected with OAT1 cDNA, we investigated the transport of OTA and also its effect on cell proliferation and cell viability. S3 cells expressing OAT1 mediated the saturable transport of OTA (Km = 0.57 microM). Cell proliferation was suppressed in S3 cells expressing OAT1 when exposed to 2 and 10 microM OTA. This suppression was rescued by the coaddition of 1 mM p-aminohippurate in the media. The present study indicates that OTA is transported by OAT1 and that the accumulation of OTA via OAT1 in proximal tubular cells is the primary event in the development of OTA nephrotoxicity. (+info)
Metabolism and excretion of ochratoxin A fed to sheep.
Hydrolysis of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OA) to ochratoxin alpha (Oalpha) by microorganisms within the gastrointestinal tract leads to the excretion of OA as the nontoxic alpha form. The Oalpha form is the principal means for the detoxification of OA. In the current experiment, three groups of four sheep were fed diets consisting of 70% concentrates and 30% hay (dry matter basis, energy to supply 1.1 times the requirement for maintenance) for 4 wk with three dietary concentrations of OA (0, 2, or 5 mg/kg of concentrate feed). The OA content did not affect feed intake or nutrient digestibility. In a preliminary experiment, an OA dose of 20 mg/kg of concentrate feed greatly reduced feed intake. After 1, 2, 3, and 4 wk of the trial, significant concentrations of OA were detected in the serum of the animals fed 2 or 5 mg of OA/kg feed. This suggested that even at a dosage of 2 mg of OA/kg of concentrate feed, considerable amounts of OA were not degraded by ruminal and intestinal microorganisms. The analysis of the feces and urine samples reflected these findings; OA and Oalpha were found in significant concentrations, escaping fermentation in the rumen and in the hindgut. The current experiment demonstrates that OA hydrolysis in the gastrointestinal tract of sheep is substantially less than previously described, especially if OA is ingested in combination with concentrate-rich diets. (+info)
Toxic effects of mycotoxins in humans.
Mycotoxicoses are diseases caused by mycotoxins, i.e. secondary metabolites of moulds. Although they occur more frequently in areas with a hot and humid climate, favourable for the growth of moulds, they can also be found in temperate zones. Exposure to mycotoxins is mostly by ingestion, but also occurs by the dermal and inhalation routes. Mycotoxicoses often remain unrecognized by medical professionals, except when large numbers of people are involved. The present article reviews outbreaks of mycotoxicoses where the mycotoxic etiology of the disease is supported by mycotoxin analysis or identification of mycotoxin-producing fungi. Epidemiological, clinical and histological findings (when available) in outbreaks of mycotoxicoses resulting from exposure to aflatoxins, ergot, trichothecenes, ochratoxins, 3-nitropropionic acid, zearalenone and fumonisins are discussed. (+info)
Molecular cloning and characterization of multispecific organic anion transporter 4 expressed in the placenta.
A cDNA encoding a novel multispecific organic anion transporter, OAT4, was isolated from a human kidney cDNA library. The OAT4 cDNA consisted of 2210 base pairs that encoded a 550-amino acid residue protein with 12 putative membrane-spanning domains. The amino acid sequence of OAT4 showed 38 to 44% identity to those of other members of the OAT family. Northern blot analysis revealed that OAT4 mRNA is abundantly expressed in the placenta as well as in the kidney. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, OAT4 mediated the high affinity transport of estrone sulfate (K(m) = 1.01 microM) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (K(m) = 0.63 microM) in a sodium-independent manner. OAT4 also mediated the transport of ochratoxin A. OAT4-mediated transport of estrone sulfate was inhibited by several sulfate conjugates, such as p-nitrophenyl sulfate, alpha-naphthyl sulfate, beta-estradiol sulfate, and 4-methylumbelliferyl sulfate. By contrast, glucuronide conjugates showed little or no inhibitory effect on the OAT4-mediated transport of estrone sulfate. OAT4 interacted with chemically heterogeneous anionic compounds, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diuretics, sulfobromophthalein, penicillin G, and bile salts, whereas tetraethylammonium, an organic cation, did not. OAT4 is the first member of the multispecific organic anion transporter family, which is expressed abundantly in the placenta. OAT4 might be responsible for the elimination and detoxification of harmful anionic substances from the fetus. (+info)