Worksite and family education for dietary change: the Treatwell 5-a-Day program.
The National Cancer Institute's '5-a-Day for Better Health Campaign is examining the efficacy of interventions in increasing the consumption of fruits and vegetables to five or more servings a day. This paper presents the study design, intervention and baseline survey results of the Treatwell 5-a-Day project, a randomized, controlled worksite-based intervention study. Twenty-two community health centers were randomly assigned to either a Minimal Intervention, Worksite Intervention or Worksite Plus Family Intervention. The Worksite Intervention included participation of employee advisory boards, programs aimed at individual behavior change and programs aimed at changes in the worksite environment. The Worksite Plus Family Intervention incorporated family-focused interventions into the worksite program, including a learn-at-home program, family newsletter, family festival and materials mailings. A self-administered survey was conducted prior to randomization (mean response rate: 87%, n = 1359). Twenty-three percent reported consuming five or more servings of fruits and vegetables a day. Consumption of fruits and vegetables was directly associated with level of household support for healthy eating. The Treatwell 5-a-Day intervention model has the potential to enhance existing worksite-based intervention through incorporation of its family focus, especially given the association of household support with individual eating habits. (+info)
Status of health promotion programme implementation in small-scale enterprises in Japan.
This study was conducted to determine the status of the implementation of health promotion programmes (HPPs) in Japanese small-scale enterprises (SSEs). A survey was conducted in 1996 using a questionnaire mailed to all the member construction companies (n = 772) of a health insurance society, and a response rate of 84% was obtained. Health examination was most frequently conducted (90%), followed by exercise/fitness programmes (17%), smoking measures (12%), health guidance (11%) and nutrition education (6%). Mental health programmes and the government-advocated Total Health Promotion Plan (THP) were implemented at less than 2% of SSEs. The implementation rates for these programmes, except for smoking measures and the THP, were higher at large enterprises than at SSEs. The employment rate for occupational physicians (OPs) was 9% and 49% at SSEs and large enterprises, respectively. The activity most frequently conducted by OPs was health examination, followed by curative services and health education. Advising employees to undergo re-examination or more valid examination after the annual health examination was most frequently conducted by non-health professionals. (+info)
Is occupational dermatitis being taken seriously by UK industries?
Occupational dermatitis is a considerable burden but little is documented concerning industry response to this. A postal questionnaire survey of 1,100 UK companies was conducted to investigate skin care provision. The response rate was 51%. The person primarily responsible for health and safety had a professional qualification in only 34% of responding companies. In all, 75% of companies responded that they were required to conduct COSHH risk assessments and, of these, 71% mentioned skin hazards. Only 27% of companies had a skin care policy but 71% had procedures requiring glove use. Seventy-seven per cent of companies did not conduct regular skin checks. Twenty-six per cent had either been aware of a skin problem in the workforce in the last 12 months or had had to modify work practices. Improvement of skin care in UK industry could be facilitated by the establishment of a minimum recommended training qualification; assistance with compliance with COSHH legislation; and guidelines to design and implement a skin policy, provide worker protection and detect skin problems. (+info)
A health promotion programme for oil refinery employees: changes of health promotion needs observed at three years.
The main aim of this three-year follow-up study was to evaluate the long-term effects of a workplace health promotion intervention programme offered by the Neste Oyj corporation's occupational health service. Another aim was to study factors associated with changes in health promotion needs. These were assessed using information obtained by means of questionnaires and laboratory measurements. The target areas assessed were physical activity, musculoskeletal problems, dietary habits, obesity, blood pressure, serum lipids, smoking, quality of sleep and mental well-being. Participants from one oil refinery were offered special health promotion counselling, while those from the other oil refinery studied received only their personal results, written information and instructions. Evaluation of the changes in needs was mainly based on comparison of the results of two examinations performed with an interval of three years. Effects of special health promotion counselling were observed in the target area of physical activity. Elimination of certain health promotion needs was seen in both groups in all of the target areas. The most extensive changes were seen in the target areas of musculoskeletal symptoms, dietary habits, blood pressure and mental well-being. Basic education, occupational status and age-group, as well as the value of tending health were frequent variables explaining the reduction in the need for health promotion activities. Worker participation in health promotion counselling activities provided by occupational health services can be high, as in this study in which the participation rate was 90% and the drop-out rate during the three years only 10%. (+info)
Evaluation of doctor-worker encounters in occupational health: an explanatory study.
In this paper workers' evaluations of various types of doctor-worker encounters in occupational health (the open consultation hour, required visits after absence from work and visits for periodic medical examination) are described and explored. The aim was a better understanding of the consultation processes and its determinants in the field of occupational health. Semistructured interviews were conducted in a sample of 313 employees. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were carried out in order to explain the variations in the outcome parameters. The quantitative analysis showed that workers' evaluation of their encounter with the occupational physician was rather indeterminate and only correlated positively with the variable 'meeting workers' expectations'. The qualitative analysis generated a classification of the variety of workers' expectations. In the Role Differentiation Model this classification of workers' expectations is related to three specific role aspects: the expert-, the counsellor- and the mediator-role aspect. The model assumes that the occupational physician should be able perform the behavioural requirements of these role aspects, in order to meet the expectations of the workers in various situations. The Role Differentiation Model is a hypothetical model, partly based on the outcome of the study, which explains the variation in workers' evaluations and could also be used to develop practice guidelines. (+info)
Medical implications of employee assistance programmes.
The development of employee assistance programmes (EAPs) has significant implications for doctors, especially general practitioners and psychiatrists. This paper discusses the importance of training counsellors to detect serious psychological disorders among people who use an EAP service and the need for clinicians to accept referrals of those users who are identified as being in need of further medical treatment. (+info)
Doctors as patients: postal survey examining consultants and general practitioners adherence to guidelines.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the adherence by senior NHS medical staff to the BMA guidelines on the ethical responsibilities of doctors towards themselves and their families. DESIGN: Postal semistructured questionnaire. SETTING: Four randomly selected NHS trusts and three local medical committees in South Thames region. SUBJECTS: Consultants and principals in general practice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Personal use of health services. RESULTS: The response rate was 64% (724) for general practitioners and 72% (427) for consultants after three mailings. Most (1106, 96%) respondents were registered with a general practitioner, although little use was made of their services. 159 (26%) general practitioners were registered with a general practitioner in their own practice and 80 (11%) admitted to looking after members of their family. 73 (24%) consultants would never see their general practitioner before obtaining consultant advice. Most consultants and general practitioners admitted to prescribing for themselves and their family. Responses to vignettes for different health problems indicated a general reluctance to take time off, but there were differences between consultants and general practitioners and by sex. Views on improvements needed included the possibility of a "doctor's doctor," access to out of area secondary care, an occupational health service for general practitioners, and regular health check ups. CONCLUSION: The guidelines are largely not being followed, perhaps because of the difficulties of obtaining access to general practitioners outside working hours. The occupational health service should be expanded and a general practitioner service for NHS staff piloted. (+info)
Evaluation research in occupational health services: general principles and a systematic review of empirical studies.
OBJECTIVES: To study the nature and extent of evaluation research in occupational health services (OHSs). METHODS: Literature review of evaluation research in OHSs. On the basis of a conceptual model of OHS evaluation, empirical studies are categorised into aspects of input, process, output, outcome, and OHS core activities. RESULTS: Many methods to evaluate OHSs or OHS activities exist, depending on the objective and object of evaluation. The amount of empirical studies on evaluation of OHSs or OHS activities that met the non-restrictive inclusion criteria, was remarkably limited. Most of the 52 studies were more descriptive than evaluative. The methodological quality of most studies was not high. A differentiated picture of the evidence of effectiveness of OHSs arises. Occupational health consultations and occupational rehabilitation are hardly studied despite much time spent on the consultation by occupational physicians in most countries. The lack of effectiveness and efficiency of the pre-employment examination should lead to its abandonment as a means of selection of personnel by OHSs. Periodic health monitoring or surveillance, and education on occupational health hazards can be carried out with reasonable process quality. Identification and evaluation of occupational health hazards by a workplace survey can be done with a high output quality, which, however, does not guarantee a favourable outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Although rigorous study designs are not always applicable or feasible in daily practice, much more effort should be directed at the scientific evaluation of OHSs and OHS instruments. To develop evidence-based occupational health care the quality of evaluation studies should be improved. In particular, process and outcome of consultation and rehabilitation activities of occupational physicians need to be studied more. (+info)