Randomised controlled trial of midwife led debriefing to reduce maternal depression after operative childbirth. (1/35)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a midwife led debriefing session during the postpartum hospital stay in reducing the prevalence of maternal depression at six months postpartum among women giving birth by caesarean section, forceps, or vacuum extraction. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Large maternity teaching hospital in Melbourne, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 1041 women who had given birth by caesarean section (n= 624) or with the use of forceps (n= 353) or vacuum extraction (n= 64). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Maternal depression (score >/=13 on the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale) and overall health status (comparison of mean scores on SF-36 subscales) measured by postal questionnaire at six months postpartum. RESULTS: 917 (88%) of the women recruited responded to the outcome questionnaire. More women allocated to debriefing scored as depressed six months after birth than women allocated to usual postpartum care (81 (17%) v 65 (14%)), although this difference was not significant (odds ratio=1.24, 95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.77). They were also more likely to report that depression had been a problem for them since the birth, but the difference was not significant (123 (28%) v 94 (22%); odds ratio=1. 37, 1.00 to 1.86). Women allocated to debriefing had poorer health status on seven of the eight SF-36 subscales, although the difference was significant only for role functioning (emotional): mean scores 73.32 v 78.98, t= -2.31, 95% confidence interval -10.48 to -0.84). CONCLUSIONS: Midwife led debriefing after operative birth is ineffective in reducing maternal morbidity at six months postpartum. The possibility that debriefing contributed to emotional health problems for some women cannot be excluded.  (+info)

Comparison of maternal and infant outcomes between vacuum extraction and forceps deliveries. (2/35)

The authors conducted a population-based historical cohort study in the Canadian province of Quebec to assess the maternal and infant outcomes associated with vacuum extraction and forceps deliveries. The study database contains information on 305,391 mother-infant dyads (linked by a common institutional code and hospital chart number) for singleton live vaginal births with a nonbreech presentation at the gestational age of 37 or more completed weeks and a birth weight between 2,500 and 4,000 g during fiscal years 1991/1992 to 1995/1996. Of the births, 31,015 were delivered by vacuum extraction, and 18,727 were delivered by forceps. Compared with delivery by forceps, the adjusted risk ratios for third-/fourth-degree perineal laceration, intracranial hemorrhage, subdural or cerebral hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cephalhematoma, and neonatal in-hospital death were 0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.45, 0.50), 1.28 (95% confidence interval: 0.73, 2.25), 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.49, 1.93), 0.99 (95% confidence interval: 0.16, 5.97), 5.44 (confidence interval: 1.26, 23.43), 2.02 (95% confidence interval: 1.89, 2.16), and 0.93 (95% confidence interval: 0.32, 2.70), respectively. The authors conclude that vacuum extraction causes less maternal trauma but may increase the risk of cephalhematoma and certain types of intracranial hemorrhage (e.g., subarachnoid hemorrhage).  (+info)

Trial and failed forceps in obstetrics. (3/35)

Current literature dealing with trial and failed forceps is reviewed, and a representative case of each is presented. There is a place in modern obstetrics for trial forceps. "Failed forceps" is due to one or more of the following conditions: (1) cephalopelvic disproportion, (2) malposition of the head, (3) premature interference under conditions unfavourable for vaginal delivery, (4) incomplete dilatation of the cervix, and (5) constriction ring. A large caput succedaneum may occasion premature obstetrical interference. An adequate pelvic examination should be performed and/or lateral radiographs of the pelvis should be taken to prevent this mistake, i.e. attempted forceps extraction. There is no place in the management of failed forceps cases for version and extraction. It may be advisable to perform an elective Cesarean section following failed forceps, even with a dead fetus.  (+info)

Trends in obstetric operative procedures, 1980 to 1987. (4/35)

OBJECTIVES: Increasing rates of cesarean deliveries have received widespread attention in recent years, as concern in the United States about unnecessary surgical procedures has increased. However, little information has been published on the national trends of other operative obstetric procedures occurring during deliveries. METHODS: We analyzed data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey to examine trends in the use of forceps, vacuum extraction, and cesarean section from 1980 through 1987. RESULTS: The rate of cesarean sections increased by 48%, while the rate of forceps procedures declined by 43%. Although the risk of cesarean section was significantly increased for older women, the risk of forceps and vacuum extraction procedures did not vary by age. Women with private insurance were significantly more likely to receive a cesarean section (rate ratio [RR] = 1.2), forceps procedure (RR = 1.7), and vacuum extraction procedure (RR = 1.8) than were women without private insurance. CONCLUSIONS: As pressure mounts to decrease the national cesarean section rate from 24% to 15% by the year 2000, attention should also be given to surveillance of other operative delivery procedures.  (+info)

Osteopathic manipulative treatment in prenatal care: a retrospective case control design study. (5/35)

The use of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) during pregnancy has a long tradition in osteopathic medicine. A retrospective study was designed to compare a group of women who received prenatal OMT with a matched group that did not receive prenatal OMT. The medical records of 160 women from four cities who received prenatal OMT were reviewed for the occurrence of meconium-stained amniotic fluid, preterm delivery, use of forceps, and cesarean delivery. The randomly selected records of 161 women who were from the same cities, but who did not receive prenatal OMT, were reviewed for the same outcomes. The results of a logistic regression analysis were statistically reliable, chi2 (4, N = 321) = 26.55; P < .001, indicating that the labor and delivery outcomes, as a set, were associated with whether OMT was administered during pregnancy. According to the Wald criterion, prenatal OMT was significantly associated with meconium-stained amniotic fluid (Z = 13.20, P < .001) and preterm delivery (Z = 9.91; P < .01), while the use of forceps was found to be marginally significant (Z = 3.28; P = .07). The case control study found evidence of improved outcomes in labor and delivery for women who received prenatal OMT, compared with women who did not. A prospective study is proposed as the next step in evaluating the effects of prenatal OMT.  (+info)

Subgaleal hematoma and seven exchange transfusions. (6/35)

A 3 kg baby was delivered by cesarean section after prolonged labor. He had massive subgaleal hematoma. He developed anemia requiring packed cell transfusions and hyperbilirubinemia requiring a total of seven exchange transfusions and highly intensive phototherapy. There were no adverse complications of the hyperbilirubinemia or the exchange transfusion.  (+info)

Operative vaginal delivery and neonatal and infant adverse outcomes: population based retrospective analysis. (7/35)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the risk of neonatal and infant adverse outcomes between vacuum and forceps assisted deliveries. DESIGN: Population based study. SETTING: US linked natality and mortality birth cohort file and the New Jersey linked natality, mortality, and hospital discharge summary birth cohort file. PARTICIPANTS: Singleton live births in the United States (n = 11 639 388) and New Jersey (n = 375 351). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Neonatal morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: Neonatal mortality was comparable between vacuum and forceps deliveries in US births (odds ratio 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.79 to 1.12). Vacuum delivery was associated with a lower risk of birth injuries (0.69, 0.66 to 0.72), neonatal seizures (0.78, 0.68 to 0.90), and need for assisted ventilation (< 30 minutes 0.94, 0.92 to 0.97; > or = 30 minutes 0.92, 0.88 to 0.98). Among births in New Jersey, vacuum extraction was more likely than forceps to be complicated by postpartum haemorrhage (1.22, 1.07 to 1.39) and shoulder dystocia (2.00, 1.62 to 2.48). The risks of intracranial haemorrhage, difficulty with feeding, and retinal haemorrhage were comparable between both modes of delivery. The sequential use of vacuum and forceps was associated with an increased risk of need for mechanical ventilation in the infant and third and fourth degree perineal tears. CONCLUSION: Although vacuum extraction does have risks, it remains a safe alternative to forceps delivery.  (+info)

Dr Christian Kielland of Oslo (1871-1941) and his straight forceps. (8/35)

Christian Kielland, a Norwegian obstetrician, published a description of his straight forceps in 1916. Although internationally recognised as a most valuable instrument for rotation of the fetal head, for many years his instrument received little appreciation in his own country.  (+info)