The parturograph is a composite record designed for the monitoring of fetal and maternal well-being and the progress of labour. It permits the early recognition of abnormalities and pinpoints the patients who would benefit most from intervention. Observations are made from the time of admission of the mother to the caseroom and recorded graphically. Factors assessed include fetal heart rate, maternal vital signs and urine, cervical dilatation, descent of the presenting fetal part, and frequency, duration and intensity of uterine contractions. (+info)
Maternal intrapartum temperature elevation as a risk factor for cesarean delivery and assisted vaginal delivery.
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the association of intrapartum temperature elevation with cesarean delivery and assisted vaginal delivery. METHODS: Participants were 1233 nulliparous women with singleton, term pregnancies in vertex presentations who had spontaneous labors and were afebrile (temperature: 99.5 degrees F [37.5 degrees C]) at admission for delivery. Rates of cesarean and assisted vaginal deliveries according to highest intrapartum temperature were examined by epidural status. RESULTS: Women with maximum intrapartum temperatures higher than 99.5 degrees F were 3 times as likely to experience cesarean (25.2% vs 7.2%) or assisted vaginal delivery (25.2% vs 8.5%). The association was present in epidural users and nonusers and persisted after birthweight, epidural use, and labor length had been controlled. In adjusted analyses, temperature elevation was associated with a doubling in the risk of cesarean delivery (odds ratio [OR] = 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5, 3.4) and assisted vaginal delivery (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.4, 3.1). CONCLUSIONS: Modest temperature elevation developing during labor was associated with higher rates of cesarean and assisted vaginal deliveries. More frequent temperature elevation among women with epidural analgesia may explain in part the higher rates of cesarean and assisted vaginal deliveries observed with epidural use. (+info)
Influence of parity on the obstetric performance of mothers aged 40 years and above.
We reviewed the delivery records of 205 mothers aged 40 years and above who delivered from 1st January 1994 to 31st December 1996 to examine the influence of parity on their obstetric performance. There were 51 (24.9%) primiparous mothers. The incidences of antenatal complications (antepartum haemorrhage, hypertensive disorder, glucose intolerance, prematurity), labour performance (type of labour, mode of delivery) and neonatal outcome (birth weight, Apgar scores, neonatal intensive care unit admission, perinatal mortality) were compared between the 51 (24.9%) primiparous and the 154 (75.1%) multiparous mothers. Higher incidences of antepartum haemorrhage (17.6 versus 5.8%, P = 0.0188), hypertensive disorder (17.6 versus 5.2%, P = 0.015), labour induction (33.3 versus 14.3%, P = 0.004) and Caesarean section delivery (58.8 versus 20.8%, P < 0.0001) were found among the primiparous mothers than the multiparous group. Neonatal outcome, however, was similar in both groups. We conclude that the primiparous mothers aged 40 years and above had more complicated antenatal and labour courses than multiparous mothers. On the other hand, the neonatal outcomes of two groups were comparable. (+info)
Intravenous insulin infusion in diabetic emergencies.
Continuous intravenous insulin and dextrose infusions were used in managing various diabetic emergencies. Standard and constant rates of insulin and dextrose infusion resulted in satisfactory control of blood glucose concentrations during labour, after major surgery, and in patients recovering from ketoacidosis (average insulin infusion rates 1, 2, and 3 U/h respectively). Higher infusion rates were used to correct or prevent ketoacidosis in pregnant diabetic women who had received steroids and sympathomimetic agents. The infusion method is simple, reliable, and flexible, and may help to simplify management of diverse types of diabetic emergencies. (+info)
Pregnancy among women with congenitally corrected transposition of great arteries.
OBJECTIVES: The outcome of pregnancy in congenitally corrected transposition of the great vessels was studied in 22 women. BACKGROUND: Women with congenitally corrected transposition of the great vessels often reach childbearing age. Although reports on the outcome of pregnancy in these women are available, the number of patients is small. METHODS: The medical and surgical databases at the Mayo Clinic were reviewed, and 36 women >16 years old with congenitally corrected transposition of the great vessels were identified. All of them were contacted, and 22 who had pregnancies were identified and the outcome of pregnancy was evaluated. RESULTS: Twenty-two women had 60 pregnancies resulting in 50 live births (83%). Forty-four deliveries (88%) were vaginal and 6 (12%) were by cesarean section. One delivery was premature at 29 weeks. There was one successful twin pregnancy. There were 11 unsuccessful pregnancies. One patient developed congestive heart failure late in pregnancy because of systemic atrioventricular valve regurgitation and required valve replacement in the early postpartum period. One patient had a total of 12 pregnancies, including 1 twin pregnancy and 2 unsuccessful pregnancies. She had multiple pregnancy-related complications, including toxemia, congestive heart failure, endocarditis and myocardial infarction (single coronary artery). No other serious pregnancy-related maternal complications and no pregnancy-related deaths occurred. The mean birth weight of the infants (n = 32) was 3.2 +/- 0.4 kg. None of the 50 live offspring have been diagnosed with congenital heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: Successful pregnancy can be achieved in most women with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries. The rate of fetal loss and maternal cardiovascular morbidity is increased. Because of the small number of births, the risk of congenital heart disease in offspring of women with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries is uncertain. (+info)
Perinatal mortality and morbidity among babies delivered in water: surveillance study and postal survey.
AIM: To compare perinatal morbidity and mortality for babies delivered in water with rates for babies delivered conventionally (not in water). DESIGN: Surveillance study (of all consultant paediatricians) and postal survey (of all NHS maternity units). SETTING: British Isles (surveillance study); England and Wales (postal survey). SUBJECTS: Babies born in the British Isles between April 1994 and March 1996 who died perinatally or were admitted for special care within 48 hours of birth after delivery in water or after labour in water followed by conventional delivery (surveillance study); babies delivered in water in England and Wales in the same period (postal survey). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURESE Number of deliveries in water in the British Isles that resulted in perinatal death or in admission to special care within 48 hours of birth; and proportions (of such deliveries) of all water births in England and Wales. RESULTS: 4032 deliveries (0.6% of all deliveries) in England and Wales occurred in water. Perinatal mortality was 1.2/1000 (95% confidence interval 0.4 to 2.9) live births; 8.4/1000 (5.8 to 11.8) live births were admitted for special care. No deaths were directly attributable to delivery in water, but 2 admissions were for water aspiration. UK reports of mortality and special care admission rates for babies of women considered to be at low risk of complications during delivery who delivered conventionally ranged from 0.8/1000 (0. 2 to 4.2) to 4.6/1000 (0.1 to 25) live births and from 9.2 (1.1 to 33) to 64/1000 (58 to 70) live births respectively. Compared with regional data for low risk, spontaneous, normal vaginal deliveries at term, the relative risk for perinatal mortality associated with delivery in water was 0.9 (99% confidence interval 0.2 to 3.6). CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal mortality is not substantially higher among babies delivered in water than among those born to low risk women who delivered conventionally. The data are compatible with a small increase or decrease in perinatal mortality for babies delivered in water. (+info)
Does preexisting abnormality cause labor-delivery complications in fetuses who will develop schizophrenia?
Many authors have suggested that theoretically the labor-delivery complications (LDCs) that frequently appear in the histories of individuals with schizophrenia represent the secondary consequence of preexistent abnormality in the fetus. The question of whether LDCs are systematically associated with prenatal complications and fetal abnormality was studied in 70 singleton schizophrenia patients, in 23 monozygotic twin pairs discordant and 10 pairs concordant for schizophrenia, and in 33 individuals with inferred genetic risk for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia cases with signs of prenatal abnormality (reduced head size, increased minor physical anomalies, greater within-twin-pair birthweight differences) did not have more LDCs than other schizophrenia cases. LDCs were not more frequent in genetic-risk cases with congenital malformations than in genetic-risk cases without malformations. Instead, individuals with schizophrenia who had a history of abnormal length of labor had significantly fewer pregnancy complications and minor physical anomalies than did other individuals with schizophrenia. No support was found for suggestions that LDCs among individuals who have not yet developed schizophrenia are the result of identifiable preexistent fetal abnormality. (+info)
Male and female isoenzymes of steroid 5alpha-reductase.
There are two steroid 5alpha-reductase isoenzymes, designated type 1 and type 2, in mammals and recent experiments show that each plays a unique physiological role. In this article, the hypothesis is developed that the type 1 gene specifies a female isoenzyme, whereas the type 2 gene specifies a male isoenzyme. This idea results from the following observations. First, mutation of the 5alpha-reductase type 1 gene in mice affects reproduction in females by decreasing fecundity and blocking parturition, but has no effect on reproduction in males. Second, mutation of the 5alpha-reductase type 2 gene in mice and men prevents proper virilization but does not affect development or reproductive function in females. Analyses of these diverse phenotypes indicate that the isoenzymes catalyse both anabolic and catabolic reactions in steroid hormone metabolism. (+info)