(1/280) Epidemiology and management of diarrheal disease in HIV-infected patients.

Diarrhea is the most common gastrointestinal symptom in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It affects up to 90% of patients, becoming more frequent and severe as the immune system deteriorates. It often is associated with significant morbidity and mortality particularly in the developing countries. Gastrointestinal infections, some of which are attributable to inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene are the predominant cause of diarrhea, although multiple medications, including traditional herbs, also may be causes. The basic principles of management include detection of treatable causes, relief of symptoms, prevention of malnutrition, and psychosocial support. In up to 60% of cases, no cause can be identified, partly because of inadequate investigative facilities. Symptomatic treatment is the mainstay of management particularly when no cause can be identified. Unfortunately this can be extremely difficult when the patient is severely immune-suppressed. There is poor response to motility control drugs, such as loperamide, and others, such as octreotide, are too expensive. Fluid replacement should be started early to prevent excessive dehydration. This should be combined with nutritional support to prevent malnutrition. Psychosocial support, including counselling, for both the patient and the caring relatives, is required to alleviate anxiety, particularly when the diarrhea becomes intractable.  (+info)

(2/280) The unseen face of humanitarian crisis in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: was nutritional relief properly targeted?

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Comparison of children's nutritional status in refugee populations with that of local host populations, one year after outbreak refugee crisis in the North Kivu region of Democratic Republic of Congo. DESIGN: Cross sectional surveys. SETTING: Temporary and other settlements, in the town of Goma and surrounding rural areas. SUBJECTS: Anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and presence or absence of oedema were measured among 5121 children aged 6 to 59 months recruited by cluster sampling with probability proportional to size, between June and August 1995. RESULTS: Children in all locations demonstrated a typical pattern of growth deficit relative to international reference. Prevalence of acute malnutrition (wt/ht < -2 Z score) was higher among children in the rural non-refugee populations (3.8 and 5.8%) than among those in the urban non-refugee populations (1.4%) or in the refugee population living in temporary settlements (1.7%). Presence of oedema was scarcely noticed in camps (0.4%) while it was a common observation at least in the most remote rural areas (10.1%). As compared with baseline data collected in 1989, there is evidence that nutritional status was worsening in rural non-refugee populations. CONCLUSIONS: Children living in the main town or in the refugee camps benefited the most from nutritional relief while those in the rural non-refugee areas were ignored. This is a worrying case of inequity in nutritional relief.  (+info)

(3/280) Nutrition after stroke.

Decisions about feeding are amongst the most difficult to face those managing stroke patients. About a fifth of patients with acute stroke are malnourished on admission to hospital. Moreover, patients' nutritional status often deteriorates thereafter because of increased metabolic demands which cannot be met due to feeding difficulties. Poor nutritional intake may result from: (i) reduced conscious level; (ii) an unsafe swallow (iii) arm or facial weakness; (iv) poor mobility; or (v) ill fitting dentures. Malnutrition is associated with poorer survival and functional outcomes, although these associations may not be causal. Patients often receive support with oral supplements or enteral tube feeding via nasogastric or percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. Although these probably improve nutritional parameters, it is unclear whether they improve patients' outcomes. Also the optimal timing, type and method of enteral feeding is uncertain. Large randomised trials are now in progress to identify the optimum feeding policies for stroke patients.  (+info)

(4/280) Nutrition in the intensive care unit.

Nutritional support has become a routine part of the care of the critically ill patient. It is an adjunctive therapy, the main goal of which is to attenuate the development of malnutrition, yet the effectiveness of nutritional support is often thwarted by an underlying hostile metabolic milieu. This requires that these metabolic changes be taken into consideration when designing nutritional regimens for such patients. There is also a need to conduct large, multi-center studies to acquire more knowledge of the cost-benefit and cost effectiveness of nutritional support in the critically ill.  (+info)

(5/280) Nutritional supplementation of elderly hip fracture patients. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

BACKGROUND: undernourishment is common in elderly hip fracture patients and has been linked to poorer recovery and increased post-operative complications. OBJECTIVE: to determine whether a nutritional supplement may (i) help elderly patients return to pre-fracture functional levels 6 months post-fracture and (ii) decrease fracture-related complications and mortality. DESIGN: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. SETTING: a county hospital near Barcelona. SUBJECTS: 171 patients, aged 70 and older, hospitalized for hip fracture between July 1994 and July 1996. METHODS: we randomized patients to intervention (n = 85) or control (n = 86) group. Patients received a nutritional supplement containing 20 g of protein and 800 mg of calcium or placebo for 60 days. We determined functional levels by the Barthel index, the mobility index and by the use of walking aids. We performed assessments during hospitalization and at 2 and 6 months post-fracture. FINDINGS: the two groups were comparable at study entry. We observed no differences in return to functional status 6 months post-fracture (61% intervention group vs 55% in control group) nor in fracture-related mortality (13% in intervention group vs 10% in control group). The intervention group suffered fewer in-hospital [odds ratio 1.88 (95% CI 1.01 - 3.53), P = 0.05] and total complications [odds ratio 1.94 (95% CI 1.02-3.7), P = 0.04] than the control group. CONCLUSION: based on our results, we cannot recommend routine nutritional supplementation of all elderly hip fracture patients. While nutritional supplementation may be useful in decreasing complications, this reduction does not result in improvement in functional recovery and nor does it decrease fracture-related mortality. Selected patients may, however, benefit from nutritional supplementation.  (+info)

(6/280) Dietary support to underweight patients with end-stage pulmonary disease assessed for lung transplantation.

BACKGROUND: Undernutrition in hospitalized patients is often not recognized and nutritional support neglected. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is frequently characterized by weight loss. No data exist on the effects of nutritional supplementation in underweight lung transplantation candidates during hospitalization. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects on energy intake and body weight of an intensified nutritional support compared to the regular support during hospitalization. METHODS: The participants were underweight (n = 42) and normal-weight (n = 29) patients with end-stage pulmonary disease assessed for lung transplantation. The underweight patients were randomized to receive either an energy-rich diet planned for 10 MJ/day and 45-50 energy percentage fat and offered supplements (group 1), or the normal hospital diet planned for 8.5-9 MJ/day and 30-35 energy percentage fat and regular support (group 2, control group). The normal-weight control patients (group 3) received the normal diet. Food intake was recorded for 3 days. RESULTS: During a mean hospital stay of 12 days, the energy intake was significantly greater for the patients on intensified nutritional support (median 11.2 MJ) than for the underweight patients on the regular support (8.4 MJ; p < 0.02) and the normal-weight patients (7.0 MJ; p < 0.001). The increase in energy intake in group 1 resulted in a significant weight gain (median 1.2 kg) compared with group 2 (p < 0.01) and group 3 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In a group of underweight patients with lung disease assessed for lung transplantation, it was possible to increase energy intake by an intensified nutritional support which was associated with a significant weight gain, compared to the regular nutritional support during a short hospital stay.  (+info)

(7/280) A 10-year survey of inflammatory bowel diseases-drug therapy, costs and adverse reactions.

BACKGROUND: Drug therapy for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis is based on anti-inflammatory and immunodulating drugs, nutritional support and surgical resection. Recently, new drugs have been introduced. AIM: To report drug prescriptions, costs and adverse reactions among inflammatory bowel disease patients in Sweden between 1988 and 1997. METHODS: Drug use was calculated from the national Diagnosis and therapy survey and drug costs from prescriptions and drug sales. Adverse drug reactions were obtained from the Medical Products Agency's National Pharmacovigilance system. RESULTS: The annual drug exposure for Crohn's disease was 0.55 million daily doses per million population, mainly supplementation and aminosalicylic acids. Mesalazine and olsalazine had 61% within this group. For ulcerative colitis patients, drug exposure was 0.61 million daily doses per million per year and aminosalicylic acids fell from 70% to 65%. For inflammatory bowel disease patients, corticosteroids and nutritional supplementation were common. The annual average cost for inflammatory bowel disease drugs was 7.0 million US dollars. Annually, 32 adverse drug reactions were reported, mainly haematological reactions such as agranulocytosis and pancytopenia (60%), followed by skin reactions. Only two deaths were reported. Aminosalicylic acids were the most commonly reported compounds. CONCLUSIONS: Drug use for inflammatory bowel disease in the pre-biologic agent era rested on aminosalicylic acid drugs and corticosteroids with stable levels, proportions and costs. The level of adverse drug reactions was low but haematological reactions support the monitoring of inflammatory bowel disease patients.  (+info)

(8/280) Treatment of protein-energy malnutrition in chronic nonmalignant disorders.

Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is common in connection with chronic disease and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Because the risk of PEM is related to the degree of illness, the causal connections between malnutrition and a poorer prognosis are complex. It cannot automatically be inferred that nutritional support will improve the clinical course of patients with wasting disorders. We reviewed studies of the treatment of PEM in cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic heart failure, stroke, dementia, rehabilitation after hip fracture, chronic renal failure, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple disorders in the elderly. Several methodologic problems are associated with nutrition treatment studies in chronically ill patients. These problems include no generally accepted definition of PEM, uncertain patient compliance with supplementation, and a wide range of outcome variables. Avail-able treatment studies indicate that dietary supplements, either alone or in combination with hormonal treatment, may have positive effects when given to patients with manifest PEM or to patients at risk of developing PEM. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, nutritional treatment may improve respiratory function. Nutritional therapy of elderly women after hip fractures may speed up the rehabilitation process. When administered to elderly patients with multiple disorders, diet therapy may improve functional capacity. The data regarding nutritional treatment of the conditions mentioned above is still inconclusive. There is still a great need for randomized controlled long-term studies of the effects of defined nutritional intervention programs in chronically ill and frail elderly with a focus on determining clinically relevant outcomes.  (+info)