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(1/120) Renal replacement therapy for acute renal failure on the intensive care unit: coming of age?

The introduction and development of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) represents one of the most substantial changes in patient management on the intensive care unit (ICU). Several issues, however, are still unresolved. Adequacy of dialysis in critically ill patients involves more than simple control of urea (although considered reflective of toxic uraemic compounds). It also concerns various (other) biochemical and clinical parameters. This article addresses important questions such as the different aspects of 'adequate' dialysis and its timing and intensity ('dialysis dosing'). Dialytic treatment should now be tailored to the patient, influenced by patient characteristics, urgency of treatment, haemodynamic tolerance and vascular access. For this, intermittent haemodialysis and CRRT should be regarded as complementary techniques, to be used interchangeably in critically ill patients with acute renal failure (ARF) according to circumstances. While awaiting scientific criteria for the initiation of renal replacement therapy in ARF patients, it seems reasonable to prefer prevention of physiological derangements to their post-hoc correction. This would mean early initiation of dialytic treatment as renal support rather than its initiation as renal replacement therapy for uraemic complications. The amount of dialysis ('dialysis dose') should preferably be prescribed on an individualised basis, especially when considering that the delivered dialysis dose may make a difference. Despite its limitations, simplified urea kinetic modelling, as outlined in this article's appendix, may be used as a bedside method to establish the required dose with CRRT. If not, at least the weight-adjusted ultrafiltration (UF) flow rate should be used as a surrogate for the prescribed dialysis dose (i.e., ml/kg/h). As the prescribed dialysis dose is usually less than the delivered dose, this should also be taken into account. In addition, nutrition should be viewed as an integral part of the dialysis prescription. Continuing effort should be made to develop 'evidence-based' guidelines for the appropriate prescription and delivery of renal replacement therapy to treat ARF in the ICU. This should include efforts to determine a validated dialysis dose methodology in ARF patients to address further the dose/outcome relationship. Based on existing data, some guidelines for the prescription and delivery of adequate (C)RRT are provided.  (+info)

(2/120) Availability of nutrition services for Medicaid recipients in the northeastern United States: lack of uniformity and the positive effect of managed care.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate third-party coverage of medical nutrition therapy for the Medicaid population, among whom obesity is a common health problem, and to compare coverage in managed care Medicaid programs with that in fee-for-service state Medicaid programs. METHODS: Fifty-four Medicaid organizations in 14 states were surveyed by telephone and asked about their provision of nutrition counseling to members. RESULTS: Overall, similar percentages of state Medicaid programs and Medicaid managed care organizations (MCOs) reimbursed for nutrition counseling; significantly more Medicaid MCOs reimbursed for this service for treatment of obesity alone. Analysis of Medicaid MCO responses by plan size failed to show a difference in the nutrition services offered. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Nutritionist consultation, an inexpensive and effective intervention for treatment of obesity, is not uniformly available to Medicaid patients. The inclusion of managed care in Medicaid has increased access to this service in the northeastern United States. We propose that all Medicaid recipients should have access to visits with a registered dietician or certified nutritionist either as part of a defined benefit structure or through a disease management program for obesity.  (+info)

(3/120) Clinical significance of plasma diamine oxidase activity in pediatric patients: influence of nutritional therapy and chemotherapy.

The aims of this study were to determine the normal values of plasma diamine oxidase (pDAO) activity in children and to examine the influence of several factors (nutritional management, dietary fiber, and chemotherapy) on pDAO activity. The activity of pDAO was measured in 138 healthy children with minor surgical conditions such as inguinal hernia or undescended testis. In order to define normal values patients were subdivided into 5 groups according to age. Next, changes in pDAO activity under different nutritional conditions were studied in 14 patients with adhesive ileus. The influence of chemotherapeutic drugs on pDAO activity was also studied in 19 neuroblastoma patients. I. The normal values of pDAO activity at year < 1, 1 < or = years < 3, 3 < or = years < 6.6 < or = years < 12, 12 < or = years were 6.65 +/- 1.75, 7.70 +/- 2.29, 6.53 +/- 1.68, 5.85 +/- 1.87, 5.06 +/- 1.84 units/l, respectively. II. The pDAO activities in patients with ileus were 4.73 +/- 1.02 (total parenteral nutrition), 6.84 +/- 1.18 (enteral, nutrition), 7.62 +/- 0.67 (soluble dietary fiber added enteral nutrition) and 8.82 +/- 1.26 units/l (oral feeding). The difference in pDAO activity at enteral or oral feeding vs. total parenteral nutrition was significant (p < .0001). III. The pDAO activity decreased significantly and remained low during the first 4 days after cyclophosphamide administration in neuroblastoma patients. The preadministration of dietary fiber inhibited the influence of cyclophosphamide. Plasma DAO activity was greatly influenced by nutritional management and administration of dietary fiber and/or cyclophosphamide. Plasma DAO activity may be a sensitive marker of intestinal function in children.  (+info)

(4/120) Bone turnover during inpatient nutritional therapy and outpatient follow-up in patients with anorexia nervosa compared with that in healthy control subjects.

BACKGROUND: Osteopenia and osteoporosis are among the most frequent and severe complications in adolescents with anorexia nervosa. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of nutritional therapy on bone metabolism during adolescent anorexia nervosa. DESIGN: We studied 19 anorectic patients aged 14.1 +/- 1.4 y (x +/- SD) with a body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) of 14.2 +/- 1.4 and 19 age-matched control subjects aged 15.1 +/- 2.3 y with a BMI of 20.8 +/- 1.9 for 1 y. Blood samples were taken for the measurement of bone markers, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and leptin. RESULTS: BMI rose significantly from 14.2 +/- 1.4 at baseline to 17.4 +/- 0.6 (P < 0.0001) at week 15. Compared with concentrations in the control subjects, concentrations of the bone formation markers procollagen type I propeptide (PICP) and bone alkaline phosphatase (bAP) in the anorectic patients were lower at baseline (PICP: P = 0.0071; bAP: P = 0.0012), increased with nutritional therapy (PICP: P = 0.0060, bAP: P = 0.0147), and were no longer significantly different (P > 0.05) during the follow-up period. Concentrations of IGF-I and leptin were significantly lower (P < 0.0001 for both) in the anorectic patients than in the control subjects at baseline. IGF-I increased with nutritional therapy but was still significantly lower (P = 0.0036) than that in the control group and decreased again during the follow-up period (P = 0.0126). In contrast, serum C-telopeptide decreased with nutritional therapy (P = 0.0446). CONCLUSION: Nutritional therapy improves concentrations of bone formation markers in adolescent patients with anorexia nervosa.  (+info)

(5/120) Probiotics and medical nutrition therapy.

Probiotics have been defined by The Food Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) as "live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host." They have been used for centuries in the form of dairy-based fermented products, but the potential use of probiotics as a form of medical nutrition therapy has not received formal recognition. A detailed literature review (from 1950 through February 2004) of English-language articles was undertaken to find articles showing a relationship between probiotic use and medical conditions. Medical conditions that have been reportedly treated or have the potential to be treated with probiotics include diarrhea, gastroenteritis, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis), cancer, depressed immune function, inadequate lactase digestion, infant allergies, failure-to-thrive, hyperlipidemia, hepatic diseases, Helicobacter pylori infections, genitourinary tract infections, and others. The use of probiotics should be further investigated for possible benefits and side-effects in patients affected by these medical conditions.  (+info)

(6/120) Diagnosis and treatment of alcoholic liver disease and its complications.

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a serious and potentially fatal consequence of alcohol use. The diagnosis of ALD is based on drinking history, physical signs and symptoms, and laboratory tests. Treatment strategies for ALD include lifestyle changes to reduce alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and obesity; nutrition therapy; and pharmacological therapy. The diagnosis and management of the complications of ALD are important for alleviating the symptoms of the disease, improving quality of life, and decreasing mortality.  (+info)

(7/120) Web-based targeted nutrition counselling and social support for patients at increased cardiovascular risk in general practice: randomized controlled trial.

BACKGROUND: Using the Internet may prove useful in providing nutrition counselling and social support for patients with chronic diseases. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the impact of Web-based nutrition counselling and social support on social support measures, anthropometry, blood pressure, and serum cholesterol in patients at increased cardiovascular risk. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial among patients with increased cardiovascular risk in Canadian family practices. During 8 months, patients in the intervention group and control groups received usual care. Patients in the intervention group also had access to a Web-based nutrition counselling and social support tool (Heartweb). Site use during the study was monitored. We measured social support, body mass index, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels at baseline and at 4 and 8 months to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. RESULTS: We randomized 146 patients into the Web-based intervention (n=73) or the control group (n=73). Within the Web-based intervention group, Heartweb was used by only 33% (24/73) of patients, with users being significantly younger than nonusers (P=.03). There were no statistically significant differences between the intervention group and the control group in changes in social support, anthropometry, blood pressure, and serum cholesterol levels. CONCLUSIONS: Uptake of the Web-based intervention was low. This study showed no favourable effects of a Web-based nutrition counselling and social support intervention on social support, anthropometry, blood pressure, and serum cholesterol. Improvements in reach and frequency of site use are needed to increase the effectiveness of Web-based interventions.  (+info)

(8/120) Refeeding oedema in anorexia nervosa.

Refeeding oedema in patients with anorexia nervosa is a known but yet under-reported and poorly-understood condition. We illustrate this condition in a 19-year-old girl with anorexia nervosa who developed bipedal oedema after she was started on nutritional therapy. It is important to be aware of the differential diagnoses of oedema in such cases, which includes heart failure and previous diuretic abuse. Refeeding oedema generally resolves spontaneously but some individuals may require treatment.  (+info)