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(1/1267) Near infra-red interactance for nutritional assessment of dialysis patients.

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is a common problem in dialysis patients and may affect up to one-third of patients. Near-infrared interactance (NIR) is a novel approach to estimate body composition and per cent total body fat. METHODS: We used near-infrared interactance (Futrex 5000) to estimate the body composition including body fat percentage, as well as subjective global assessment (SGA), anthropometric measurements including mid-arm circumference (MAC), triceps and biceps skinfold thickness, calculated mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), body mass index (BMI), and laboratory values. NIR score, SGA assessment and anthropometric parameters were measured shortly after the end of a dialysis session. NIR measurement was made by placing a Futrex sensor on the nonaccess upper arm for several seconds. Serum albumin, transferrin (reflected by total iron binding capacity), and total cholesterol concentrations were performed as well. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients (20 men and 14 women) were selected from a pool of 120 haemodialysis patients. Their ages ranged from 26 to 86 years (58+/-14 years). Time on dialysis ranged from 8 months to 19 years (4.5+/-4.6 years). NIR scores were significantly different in three SGA groups: (A) well-nourished, 32.5+/-6.9%; (B) mildly to moderately malnourished, 29.2+/-5.3%; and (C) severely malnourished, 23.2+/-10.2% (P<0.001). Pearson correlation coefficients (r) between the NIR score and nutritionally relevant parameters were significant (P<0.001) for body mass index (r=+0.81), mid-arm circumference (r=+0.74), triceps skin fold (r=+0.54), biceps skin fold (r=+0.55), and mid-arm muscle circumference (r=+0.54). An inverse correlation was also found between NIR and years dialysed (r=-0.49, P=0.004), denoting a lesser body fat percentage according to NIR for patients dialysed longer. NIR was correlated with serum transferrin (r=+0.41, P=0.016) and cholesterol (r=+0.39, P=0.022) and marginally with serum albumin (r=+0.29, P=0.097). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that NIR, which can be performed within seconds, may serve as an objective indicator of nutritional status in haemodialysis patients. More comparative and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the validity of NIR measurements in nutritional evaluation of dialysis patients.  (+info)

(2/1267) Prevalence and clinical outcome associated with preexisting malnutrition in acute renal failure: a prospective cohort study.

Malnutrition is a frequent finding in hospitalized patients and is associated with an increased risk of subsequent in-hospital morbidity and mortality. Both prevalence and prognostic relevance of preexisting malnutrition in patients referred to nephrology wards for acute renal failure (ARF) are still unknown. This study tests the hypothesis that malnutrition is frequent in such clinical setting, and is associated with excess in-hospital morbidity and mortality. A prospective cohort of 309 patients admitted to a renal intermediate care unit during a 42-mo period with ARF diagnosis was studied. Patients with malnutrition were identified at admission by the Subjective Global Assessment of nutritional status method (SGA); nutritional status was also evaluated by anthropometric, biochemical, and immunologic parameters. Outcome measures included in-hospital mortality and morbidity, and use of health care resources. In-hospital mortality was 39% (120 of 309); renal replacement therapies (hemodialysis or continuous hemofiltration) were performed in 67% of patients (206 of 309); APACHE II score was 23.1+/-8.2 (range, 10 to 52). Severe malnutrition by SGA was found in 42% of patients with ARF; anthropometric, biochemical, and immunologic nutritional indexes were significantly reduced in this group compared with patients with normal nutritional status. Severely malnourished patients, as compared to patients with normal nutritional status, had significantly increased morbidity for sepsis (odds ratio [OR] 2.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53 to 5.42, P < 0.001), septic shock (OR 4.05; 95% CI, 1.46 to 11.28, P < 0.01), hemorrhage (OR 2.98; 95% CI, 1.45 to 6.13, P < 0.01), intestinal occlusion (OR 5.57; 95% CI, 1.57 to 19.74, P < 0.01), cardiac dysrhythmia (OR 2.29; 95% CI, 1.36 to 3.85, P < 0.01), cardiogenic shock (OR 4.39; 95% CI, 1.83 to 10.55, P < .001), and acute respiratory failure with mechanical ventilation need (OR 3.35; 95% CI, 3.35 to 8.74, P < 0.05). Hospital length of stay was significantly increased (P < 0.01), and the presence of severe malnutrition was associated with a significant increase of in-hospital mortality (OR 7.21; 95% CI, 4.08 to 12.73, P < 0.001). Preexisting malnutrition was a statistically significant, independent predictor of in-hospital mortality at multivariable logistic regression analysis both with comorbidities (OR 2.02; 95% CI, 1.50 to 2.71, P < 0.001), and with comorbidities and complications (OR 2.12; 95% CI, 1.61 to 2.89, P < 0.001). Malnutrition is highly prevalent among ARF patients and increases the likelihood of in-hospital death, complications, and use of health care resources.  (+info)

(3/1267) Comparison of growth status of patients with cystic fibrosis between the United States and Canada.

BACKGROUND: Differences in growth status of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) between the United States and Canada were reported in the 1980s based on analysis of data from 2 regional CF centers. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the current growth status of the entire CF population in the United States and Canada in view of recent advances in the treatment of CF. DESIGN: Growth data from the 1992-1994 CF Patient Registries were analyzed. RESULTS: Mean height and weight were at approximately the 30th percentile for children with CF in the United States. Mean height and weight were 4-5 percentiles higher in children with CF in Canada than in those in the United States (P < 0.01), but percentages of ideal weight (104%) were similar in both populations. In adults with CF, mean height was similar at the 37th percentile; however, weight (26th compared with the 21st percentiles) and percentage of ideal weight (93% compared with 90%) were significantly higher in Canada than in the United States. Differences related to sex and age were similar in both countries for all indexes, which showed a high prevalence of underweight in infants and in older patients, but little sex discrepancy. CONCLUSION: We observed substantially smaller differences in the growth indexes of CF patients between the United States and Canada compared with results from the 1980s. These findings reflect significant improvements in the nutritional status of US patients in recent years. However, caution is required in the direct comparison of mean percentiles from reports using different growth standards because there are systematic differences in growth standards, which affect, in particular, the comparison of growth in males and females.  (+info)

(4/1267) Cost-effective treatment for severely malnourished children: what is the best approach?

In urban Bangladesh, 437 children with severe malnutrition aged 12-60 months were sequentially allocated to treat either as i) inpatients, ii) day care, or iii) domiciliary care after one week of day care. Average institutional cost (US$) to achieve 80% weight-for-height were respectively $156, $59 and $29/child. As a proportion of the overall costs, staff salaries were the largest component, followed by laboratory tests. Parental costs were highest for domiciliary care, as no food supplements were provided. Nevertheless it was the option most preferred by parents and when the institutional and parental costs were combined, domiciliary care was 1.6 times more cost-effective than day care, and 4.1 times more cost-effective than inpatient care. CONCLUSION: With careful training and an efficient referral system, domiciliary care preceded by one week of day care is the most cost-effective treatment option for severe malnutrition in this setting.  (+info)

(5/1267) Nutritional status in type 2 diabetic patients requiring haemodialysis.

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease are often overweight (BMI > 24) at the start of dialysis therapy. However, there are very few reports in the literature concerning the nutritional status of these patients after prolonged haemodialysis treatment. Therefore, we compared nutritional parameters in type 2 diabetic patients and age-matched non-diabetic patients after at least 18 months of renal replacement therapy with haemodialysis. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we measured BMI, serum albumin, total protein, serum cholesterol and interdialytic weight gain (IWG), and performed a subjective global assessment (SGA) in 14 patients with type 2 diabetes and 16 non-diabetic patients (aged > or = 50 years, haemodialysis therapy > or = 18 months). Protein intake was estimated using the protein catabolic rate (PCR) and Kt/V was calculated to compare the dose of dialysis. RESULTS: BMI was significantly higher in patients with type 2 diabetes (30+/-7 vs 24+/-3, P<0.01). In contrast, the concentration of serum albumin was significantly lower (3180+/-499 mg/dl vs 3576+/-431 mg/dl, P<0.05), but six of the diabetic patients had signs of chronic inflammation. All other nutritional parameters did not differ between the two groups. In addition, there were no significant differences in the intake of protein (PCR 0.93+/-0.19 vs 0.92+/-0.22) and the dose of dialysis (Kt/V 1.13+/-0.19 vs 1.2+/-0.2). CONCLUSION: After > or = 18 months of haemodialysis therapy, the majority of type 2 diabetic patients (9/14) were still overweight (BMI > 24). The nutritional status of diabetic patients was similar to that of age-matched non-diabetic patients on prolonged haemodialysis, but serum albumin levels were significantly lower in diabetics. The lower albumin levels in the diabetic patients may be explained by a state of subclinical chronic inflammation.  (+info)

(6/1267) Does a high peritoneal transport rate reflect a state of chronic inflammation?

OBJECTIVE: It has recently been reported that a high peritoneal transport rate was associated with increased mortality in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. One possible explanation is that a high peritoneal transport rate might be caused by a state of chronic inflammation, which also per se might result in increased mortality. Therefore, in this study we investigated whether high peritoneal transport rate patients are in a state of chronic inflammation. METHODS: The study included 39 clinically stable peritoneal dialysis patients (free of peritonitis) who had been on PD for more than 3 months (16.8+/-11.8 months). Seven patients were treated with continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD) and the others were on CAPD. A 4-hour standard peritoneal equilibration test (PET) using 2.27% glucose solution was performed in each patient. Dialysate samples at 4 hours and blood samples at 2 hours were measured for interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor(alpha)(TNFalpha), C-reactive protein (CRP), and hyaluronan as markers of inflammation. RESULTS: There was no significant correlation between dialysate/plasma (DIP) creatinine (0.82+/-0.15, range 0.51 - 1.15) and blood concentrations of IL-1beta (11.2 ng/L, range <5 - 65.9 ng/L),TNFalpha (12.1 ng/L, range <5 - 85.4 ng/L), CRP (<10 mg/L, range <10 - 76 mg/L), nor with the blood hyaluronan concentration (165 microg/L, range 55 - 955 microg/L). The dialysate concentrations of IL-1beta and TNFalpha were below the detectable level in most of the samples. Although dialysate hyaluronan concentration (334 microg/L, range 89 - 1100 microg/L) was correlated with D/P creatinine (r= 0.36, p< 0.05), there was no correlation between the total amount of hyaluronan in the effluent and D/P creatinine. However, a significant correlation was found between serum hyaluronan concentration and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (r = -0.49, p< 0.005); GFR also tended to be correlated with serum TNFalpha (r = -0.31, p = 0.058) but not with serum IL-1beta and serum CRP. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that a high peritoneal transport rate is not necessarily related to a state of chronic inflammation in CAPD patients. The high mortality rate observed in high transporters may relate to other issues, such as fluid balance or abnormal nutrition and metabolism, rather than to chronic inflammation.  (+info)

(7/1267) Independent evaluation of onchocerciasis rapid assessment methods in Benue State, Nigeria.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of palpable nodules or skin depigmentation as rapid indicators of onchocerciasis epidemicity in at-risk communities. METHOD: We examined data collected in Benue State on 11035 individuals in 32 villages to evaluate these rapid assessment methods. RESULTS: The prevalence of palpable nodules correlates more closely with microfilarial prevalence (r=0.68, P<0.001) and community microfilarial load (r=0.64, P<0.001) than the prevalences of skin depigmentation or other potential rapid indicators. The recommended cut-off value for palpable nodules of 20% or more in males aged >20 years had a sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 50% compared to a cut-off of 40% or more for microfilarial prevalence in all ages. This would mean that in these 32 villages 17 of 18 would have been correctly identified for treatment, and a further 7 at lesser risk would have been targeted for treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Skin snipping and parasitological examination can be replaced by the simpler method of palpating onchocercal nodules to identify communities at serious risk of onchocerciasis. This has important operational benefits for onchocerciasis control programmes.  (+info)

(8/1267) Malnutrition modifies pig small intestinal inflammatory responses to rotavirus.

Infectious diarrheal diseases and malnutrition are major causes of child morbidity and mortality. In this study, malnutrition was superimposed on rotavirus infection in neonatal piglets to simulate the combined intestinal stress of viral enteritis in malnourished infants. Two-day-old piglets were assigned to three treatment groups as follows: 1) noninfected, fully nourished; 2) infected, fully nourished; and 3) infected, malnourished. Intestinal indices of inflammation were monitored over the subsequent 2-wk period. Intestinal damage and diarrhea were observed within 2 d of rotavirus infection and began to subside in nourished piglets by d 9 but persisted through d 16 postinfection in malnourished piglets. Rotavirus upregulated small intestinal expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II genes; malnutrition intensified MHC class I gene expression and suppressed MHC class II expression. Jejunal CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocyte numbers were elevated for infected, nourished piglets on d 2, 9 and 16 postinfection. Malnutrition did not significantly affect the local expansion of T cell subsets in response to rotavirus. Intestinal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations were elevated early after rotavirus infection independent of nutritional state. By d 9, PGE2 concentrations returned to baseline in infected, nourished piglets but remained elevated in malnourished piglets, corresponding to diarrhea observations. Together, the results identify intestinal indices of inflammation that are modulated by malnutrition and prompt reconsideration of current models of rotavirus pathophysiology.  (+info)