The effects of managed care and prospective payment on the demand for hospital nurses: evidence from California.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of managed care and the prospective payment system on the hospital employment of registered nurses (RNs), licensed practical nurses (LPNs), and aides. DATA SOURCES: Hospital-level data from California's Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) Hospital Disclosure Reports from 1976/1977 through 1994/1995. Additional information is extracted from OSHPD Patient Discharge Data. STUDY DESIGN: Multivariate regression equations are used to estimate demand for nurses as a function of wages, hospital output, technology level, and ownership. Separate equations are estimated for RNs, LPNs, and aides for all daily services and for medical-surgical units. Instrumental variables are used to correct for the endogeneity of wages, and fixed effects are included to control for unobserved differences across hospitals. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HMOs are associated with a lower use of LPNs and aides, and HMOs do not have a statistically significant effect on the demand for RNs. Managed care has a smaller effect on nurse staffing in medical-surgical units than in daily service units as a whole. The prospective payment system does not have a statistically significant effect on nurse staffing. CONCLUSIONS: HMOs have affected nursing employment both because HMOs have reduced the number of discharges and because of a direct relationship between HMO penetration and the demand for LPNs and aides. Contrary to press reports, LPNs and aides have been affected more by HMOs than have registered nurses. (+info)
Analysis and control of nurse staffing.
An information and reporting system based on a regression analysis of historical nurse staffing data is described. The system provides a concise monthly report from which administrators can evaluate the efficiency of scheduling procedures used by nurse supervisors to meet varying patient loads. (+info)
Intervention strategies to reduce musculoskeletal injuries associated with handling patients: a systematic review.
AIMS: To report, analyse, and discuss the results of a systematic review looking at intervention strategies to reduce the risk factors associated with patient handling activities. METHODS: A search strategy was devised to seek out research between 1960 and 2001. Inclusion/exclusion criteria limited the entry of papers into the review process. A checklist was selected and modified to include a wide range of study designs. Inter-rater reliability was established between six reviewers before the main review process commenced. Each paper was read by two reviewers and given a quality rating score, with any conflicts being resolved by a third reviewer. Papers were grouped by category: multifactor, single factor, and technique training based interventions. RESULTS: A total of 2796 papers were found, of which 880 were appraised. Sixty three papers relating to interventions are reported in this paper. The results are reported as summary statements with the associated evidence level (strong, moderate, limited, or poor). CONCLUSION: There is strong evidence that interventions predominantly based on technique training have no impact on working practices or injury rates. Multifactor interventions, based on a risk assessment programme, are most likely to be successful in reducing risk factors related to patient handling activities. The seven most commonly used strategies are identified and it is suggested that these could be used to form the basis of a generic intervention programme, with additional local priorities identified through the risk assessment process. Health care providers should review their policies and procedures in light of these findings. (+info)
Nurses in urban and rural general practice. Who are they and what do they do?
BACKGROUND: There is limited information about general practice nurses in Australia and the role they play. METHODS: A qualitative study, using semistructured interviews conducted with 27 general practitioners and 15 practice nurses (PNs) from 19 general practices in New South Wales. RESULTS: Practice nurses are typically middle aged women, employed part time with extensive professional experience. Their role is influenced mostly by the demographic characteristics of the practice population, their expertise, and GPs' attitudes and past experiences of working with PNs, rather than the size or urban/rural location of the practice. DISCUSSION: Practice nurses are an important, but not always fully used, resource in general practice. They can reduce the workload of GPs, extend the range of services provided and enhance the quality of primary health care. Their current and potential contribution to primary care needs to be documented and evaluated more fully. (+info)
Australian consumers' expectations for expanded nursing roles in general practice--choice not gatekeeping.
While research has focussed on the current and potential role of the practice nurse (PN) in Australia, the acceptability of this role by consumers has not been investigated. In 2002, two independent studies were carried out into consumer perceptions of PNs. A disscussion between the two groups of researchers at the inaugural National Pratice Nurse Conference in 2003, identifiied significant similarities in the findings of the tese studies. This article reports the combined findings as they relate to consumer's desire for access to the health practitioner of their choice, and their concern that PNs may assume a Gatekeeping role. These perceptions may have significant impact on the acceptance of PNs across Australia. (+info)
Nurse practitioner and practice nurses' use of research information in clinical decision making: findings from an exploratory study.
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of evidence regarding the kinds of decisions made by primary care nurses and the information sources they use in clinical decision making. OBJECTIVE: To describe the decisions made by nurses working in general practice and the sources of information they use to underpin those decisions. METHODS: Qualitative methods (interviews, observation, documentary analysis) were used to collect data on the clinical decision making and information seeking behaviour of a purposive sample of 29 practice nurses and four nurse practitioners from general practices in the North of England. Data were collected November 2001-September 2002. RESULTS: A seven-fold typology captured the types of decisions the nurses made on a daily basis concerning assessment, diagnosis, intervention, referral, communication, service delivery and organization (SDO) and information seeking. Faced with clinical uncertainty, the majority of the nurses in the study relied on personal experience, or obtained advice and information from GP or other colleagues. These 'human sources' of information were overwhelmingly preferred to text or on-line resources. Despite encounters with evidence-based resources through continuing professional development, the nurses rarely used them to seek answers to routine clinical questions. CONCLUSION: The decisions of the nurses in the study were mainly concerned with undifferentiated diagnosis and treatment, in the context of acute conditions and chronic disease management. 'Human sources' of information were preferred to any other; however, we do not know whether information obtained from colleagues is based on research. (+info)
Work-related injury among direct care occupations in British Columbia, Canada.
OBJECTIVES: To examine how injury rates and injury types differ across direct care occupations in relation to the healthcare settings in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS: Data were derived from a standardised operational database in three BC health regions. Injury rates were defined as the number of injuries per 100 full-time equivalent (FTE) positions. Poisson regression, with Generalised Estimating Equations, was used to determine injury risks associated with direct care occupations (registered nurses [RNs], licensed practical nurses [LPNs) and care aides [CAs]) by healthcare setting (acute care, nursing homes and community care). RESULTS: CAs had higher injury rates in every setting, with the highest rate in nursing homes (37.0 injuries per 100 FTE). LPNs had higher injury rates (30.0) within acute care than within nursing homes. Few LPNs worked in community care. For RNs, the highest injury rates (21.9) occurred in acute care, but their highest (13.0) musculoskeletal injury (MSI) rate occurred in nursing homes. MSIs comprised the largest proportion of total injuries in all occupations. In both acute care and nursing homes, CAs had twice the MSI risk of RNs. Across all settings, puncture injuries were more predominant for RNs (21.3% of their total injuries) compared with LPNs (14.4%) and CAs (3.7%). Skin, eye and respiratory irritation injuries comprised a larger proportion of total injuries for RNs (11.1%) than for LPNs (7.2%) and CAs (5.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Direct care occupations have different risks of occupational injuries based on the particular tasks and roles they fulfil within each healthcare setting. CAs are the most vulnerable for sustaining MSIs since their job mostly entails transferring and repositioning tasks during patient/resident/client care. Strategies should focus on prevention of MSIs for all occupations as well as target puncture and irritation injuries for RNs and LPNs. (+info)
A novel, intensive home-visiting intervention for runaway, sexually exploited girls.