Organizational and environmental factors associated with nursing home participation in managed care.
OBJECTIVE: To develop and test a model, based on resource dependence theory, that identifies the organizational and environmental characteristics associated with nursing home participation in managed care. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING: Data for statistical analysis derived from a survey of Directors of Nursing in a sample of nursing homes in eight states (n = 308). These data were merged with data from the On-line Survey Certification and Reporting System, the Medicare Managed Care State/County Data File, and the 1995 Area Resource File. STUDY DESIGN: Since the dependent variable is dichotomous, the logistic procedure was used to fit the regression. The analysis was weighted using SUDAAN. FINDINGS: Participation in a provider network, higher proportions of resident care covered by Medicare, providing IV therapy, greater availability of RNs and physical therapists, and Medicare HMO market penetration are associated with a greater likelihood of having a managed care contract. CONCLUSION: As more Medicare recipients enroll in HMOs, nursing home involvement in managed care is likely to increase. Interorganizational linkages enhance the likelihood of managed care participation. Nursing homes interested in managed care should consider upgrading staffing and providing at least some subacute services. (+info)
Prevalence and treatment of pain in older adults in nursing homes and other long-term care institutions: a systematic review.
BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of pain in older adults and its impact in this age group make it a public health issue, yet few studies of pain relief focus on older adults. Residents of long-term care facilities have more cognitive impairment than their community-living counterparts and may have difficulty reporting the presence and severity of pain. This systematic literature review was conducted to determine the prevalence of pain, and the type and effectiveness of interventions that have been used to treat pain in residents of nursing homes. METHODS: Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE (from January 1966 to May 1997), HEALTH (from January 1975 to May 1997), CINAHL (from January 1982 to April 1997), AGELINE (from January 1978 to April 1997) and the Cochrane Library (1997, issue 1) and by performing a manual search of textbooks and reference lists. Studies of any methodological design were included if they estimated the prevalence of pain in nursing homes or other long-term care institutions or evaluated interventions for the treatment of pain in residents. Of the 14 eligible studies, 12 were noncomparative studies, 1 was a comparison study with nonrandomized contemporaneous controls, and 1 was a randomized controlled trial. Information on several factors was extracted from each study, including study design, number of patients and facilities, main outcomes measured, methods used to identify and detect pain, prevalence and types of pain, and interventions used to treat pain. The strength of the evidence provided by each study was also assessed. RESULTS: In the 6 studies with data from self-reporting or chart reviews, the prevalence of pain ranged from 49% to 83%. In the 5 studies with data on analgesic use only, the prevalence of pain ranged from 27% to 44%. Only 3 studies, with just 30 patients in total, evaluated an intervention for the treatment of pain. INTERPRETATION: Despite the high prevalence of pain in residents of nursing homes, there is a lack of studies evaluating interventions to relieve their pain. The authors make recommendations for future studies in this area. (+info)
The economic value of informal caregiving.
This study explores the current market value of the care provided by unpaid family members and friends to ill and disabled adults. Using large, national data sets we estimate that the national economic value of informal caregiving was $196 billion in 1997. This figure dwarfs national spending for formal home health care ($32 billion) and nursing home care ($83 billion). Estimates for five states also are presented. This study broadens the issue of informal caregiving from the micro level, where individual caregivers attempt to cope with the stresses and responsibilities of caregiving, to the macro level of the health care system, which must find more effective ways to support family caregivers. (+info)
Can we create a therapeutic relationship with nursing home residents in the later stages of Alzheimer's disease?
1. Despite their entrance into advanced illness, the majority (83%) of participants in the study displayed evidence of having begun a therapeutic relationship with their assigned advanced practice nurse. 2. With one exception, those participants who did not evidence development of the relationship had severely limited speech, perseverative speech, or did not speak at all. 3. It is time to challenge the assumption that individuals in the middle and later stages of Alzheimer's disease are not good candidates for developing a therapeutic relationship. (+info)
An analysis of predictors of prescription drug costs among Medicaid nursing home residents in Texas.
A study was conducted to examine the relations among patient-specific demographic characteristics, previous prescription costs and utilization, and subsequent prescription costs for a population of 55,677 Medicaid nursing home residents in Texas. Patient-specific factors, based on previous patient utilization and cost levels, exist within the Texas Medicaid nursing home population that may serve as predictors of subsequent prescription costs. Although some statistically significant relations exist between prescription costs and patient demographic factors such as age, sex, and location, these demographic factors are of little or no practical value in prediction of prescription costs for subsequent periods of time. (+info)
Nursing home characteristics and the development of pressure sores and disruptive behaviour.
OBJECTIVE: To determine how nursing home characteristics affect pressure sores and disruptive behaviour. METHOD: Residents (n = 5518, aged > or =60 years) were selected from 70 nursing homes in the National Health Care chain. Homes were classified as high- or low-risk based on incidence tertiles of pressure sores or disruptive behaviour (1989-90). Point-prevalence and cumulative incidence of pressure sores and disruptive behaviour were examined along with other functional and service variables. RESULTS: The overall incidence of pressure sores was 11.4% and the relative risk was 4.3 times greater in high- than low-risk homes; for disruptive behaviour, the incidence was 27% and the relative risk was 7.1 times greater in the high-risk group. At baseline, fewer subjects in homes with a high risk of pressure sores were white or in restraints, but more had received physician visits monthly and had had problems with transfers and eating. High-risk homes also had fewer beds and used less non-licensed nursing staff time. At follow-up (1987-90), 52% of homes in the low-risk group and 35% of those in the high-risk group had maintained their risk status; low-risk homes were more likely to have rehabilitation and maintenance activities. Having multiple clinical risk factors was associated with more pressure sores in high- (but not low-) risk homes, suggesting a care-burden threshold. By logistic regression, the best predictor of pressure sores was a home's prior (1987-88) incidence status. Interestingly, 67% of homes with a high risk of pressure sores were also high-risk for disruptive behaviour, while only 27% of homes with a low risk of pressure sores were high-risk for disruptive behaviour. A threshold effect was also observed between multiple risk factors and behaviour. More homes with a high risk of disruptive behaviour (68%) remained at risk over 4 years, and the best predictor of outcome was a home's previous morbidity level. CONCLUSION: Nursing-home characteristics may have a greater impact than clinical factors on pressure sores and disruptive behaviour in long-stay, institutionalized elders. (+info)
Use of nursing home after stroke and dependence on stroke severity: a population-based analysis.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There are few population-based data available regarding nursing home use after stroke. This study clarifies the use of a nursing home after stroke, as well as its dependence on stroke severity, in a defined population. METHODS: All first stroke events among residents of Rochester, Minn, during 1987-1989 were ascertained, subtyped, and assigned Rankin disability scores (RS) before the event, at maximal deficit, and at specified intervals after stroke. Persons were followed from the date of stroke event to death, emigration from Rochester, or December 31, 1994, in complete community-based medical records and Minnesota Case Mix Review Program data tapes to determine nursing home residency before stroke and at 90 days and 1 year after stroke, proportion of survival days in a nursing home, and cumulative risk of admission to a nursing home. RESULTS: There were 251 cases of first cerebral infarction, 24 intracerebral hemorrhages, and 15 subarachnoid hemorrhages among residents of Rochester during 1987-1989. The maximal deficit RS was 1 or 2 for 62 (25%), RS 3 for 72 (29%), and RS 4 or 5 for 117 (47%) of the cerebral infarct patients. Among patients surviving to 90 days or 1 year after cerebral infarction, 25% were in nursing home at 90 days and 22% at 1 year, respectively. Within these maximal deficit RS categories, the percentages of follow-up time spent in a nursing home during the first post-cerebral infarction year are as follows: RS 1 to 2, 4%; RS 3, 10%; and RS 4 to 5, 54%. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that increasing age and RS 4 to 5 at maximal deficit were independent predictors (P<0.0001) of nursing home residency at 90 days and 1 year after stroke, whereas stroke type was not an independent predictor. At 1 year after cerebral infarction, the Kaplan-Meier estimates of proportion of people with at least 1 nursing home admission were 11% for RS 1 to 2, 22% for RS 3, and 68% for RS 4 to 5. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides unique population-based data regarding the short- and long-term use of a nursing home after stroke and its dependence on stroke severity. More than 50% of people with a severe cerebral infarction are in a nursing home 90 days and 1 year after the stroke, and by 1 year, nearly 70% will have required some nursing home stay. Age and stroke severity are independent predictors of nursing home residency after stroke. (+info)
Small bowel bacterial overgrowth in subjects living in residential care homes.
OBJECTIVES: in elderly people, bacterial overgrowth of the small bowel may be occult. The significance of positive breath tests are uncertain: many fit elderly subjects with positive tests show no evidence of malabsorption. We assessed the prevalence and significance of bacterial overgrowth in the small bowel in a relatively unselected elderly population. METHODS: residents of seven elderly people's homes had a glucose hydrogen breath test. A medical history and anthropomorphic measurements were recorded. Volunteers with positive breath tests were given doxycycline. After 4 months all volunteers were reassessed. RESULTS: of 140 residents, 62 were tested. Nine (14.5%) had a positive breath test. There was no difference in anthropomorphic and bowel habit data between those with positive and those with negative breath tests. After 4 months of antibiotic treatment, volunteers with a positive breath test had increased weight and body mass index, while those with a negative test had decreased weight and body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: the percentage of volunteers with a positive breath test was much lower than in previous studies. This may be due to the relatively unselected nature of the volunteers. Treatment of bacterial overgrowth resulted in a small but significant improvement in anthropometric indices. The lack of association of positive breath tests with baseline anthropomorphic measurements or bowel habit highlights the occult nature of the bacterial overgrowth and questions its clinical importance. (+info)