Uracil-induced down-regulation of the yeast uracil permease.
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the FUR4-encoded uracil permease catalyzes the first step of the pyrimidine salvage pathway. The availability of uracil has a negative regulatory effect upon its own transport. Uracil causes a decrease in the level of uracil permease, partly by decreasing the FUR4 mRNA level in a promoter-independent fashion, probably by increasing its instability. Uracil entry also triggers more rapid degradation of the existing permease by promoting high efficiency of ubiquitination of the permease that signals its internalization. A direct binding of intracellular uracil to the permease is possibly involved in this feedback regulation, as the behavior of the permease is similar in mutant cells unable to convert intracellular uracil into UMP. We used cells impaired in the ubiquitination step to show that the addition of uracil produces rapid inhibition of uracil transport. This may be the first response prior to the removal of the permease from the plasma membrane. Similar down-regulation of uracil uptake, involving several processes, was observed under adverse conditions mainly corresponding to a decrease in the cellular content of ribosomes. These results suggest that uracil of exogenous or catabolic origin down-regulates the cognate permease to prevent buildup of excess intracellular uracil-derived nucleotides. (+info)
Membrane topology of the mammalian CMP-sialic acid transporter.
Nucleotide sugar transporters form a family of distantly related membrane proteins of the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum. The first transporter sequences have been identified within the last 2 years. However, information about the secondary and tertiary structure for these molecules has been limited to theoretical considerations. In the present study, an epitope-insertion approach was used to investigate the membrane topology of the CMP-sialic acid transporter. Immunofluorescence studies were carried out to analyze the orientation of the introduced epitopes in semipermeabilized cells. Both an amino-terminally introduced FLAG sequence and a carboxyl-terminal hemagglutinin tag were found to be oriented toward the cytosol. Results obtained with CMP-sialic acid transporter variants that contained the hemagglutinin epitope in potential intermembrane loop structures were in good correlation with the presence of 10 transmembrane regions. This building concept seems to be preserved also in other mammalian and nonmammalian nucleotide sugar transporters. Moreover, the functional analysis of the generated mutants demonstrated that insertions in or very close to membrane-spanning regions inactivate the transport process, whereas those in hydrophilic loop structures have no detectable effect on the activity. This study points the way toward understanding structure-function relationships of nucleotide sugar transporters. (+info)
Only one of the charged amino acids located in membrane-spanning regions is important for the function of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae uracil permease.
The transport of uracil into the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mediated by uracil permease, a specific co-transporter encoded by the FUR4 gene. Uracil permease is a multispan membrane protein that is delivered to the plasma membrane via the secretory pathway. Experimental results led to the proposal of a two-dimensional model of the protein's topology. According to this model, the membrane domain of Fur4p contains three charged amino acid residues (Glu-243, Lys-272 and Glu-539) that are conserved in the members of the FUR family of yeast transporters. We have previously shown that a mis-sense mutation leading to the replacement of Lys-272 by Glu severely impairs the function of uracil permease. In the present paper, the role of the three charged residues present in the membrane-spanning regions of Fur4p was further investigated by using site-directed mutagenesis. The variant permeases were correctly targeted to the plasma membrane and their stabilities were similar to that of the wild-type permease. The effect of the mutations was studied by measuring the uptake constants for uracil on whole cells and equilibrium binding parameters on plasma membrane-enriched fractions. We found no evidence for ionic interaction between either of the glutamic residues in transmembrane segments 3 and 9 and the lysine residue in transmembrane segment 4. Of the three charged residues, only Lys-272 was important for the transport activity of the transporter. Its replacement by Ala, Glu or even Arg strongly impaired both the binding and the translocation of uracil. (+info)
Transport of organic anions by the lysosomal sialic acid transporter: a functional approach towards the gene for sialic acid storage disease.
Transport of sialic acid through the lysosomal membrane is defective in the human sialic acid storage disease. The mammalian sialic acid carrier has a wide substrate specificity for acidic monosaccharides. Recently, we showed that also non-sugar monocarboxylates like L-lactate are substrates for the carrier. Here we report that other organic anions, which are substrates for carriers belonging to several anion transporter families, are recognized by the sialic acid transporter. Hence, the mammalian system reveals once more novel aspects of solute transport, including sugars and a wide array of non-sugar compounds, apparently unique to this system. These data suggest that the search for the sialic acid storage disease gene can be initiated by a functional selection of genes from a limited number of anion transporter families. Among these, candidates will be identified by mapping to the known sialic acid storage disease locus. (+info)
Expression and activity of chimeric molecules between human UDP-galactose transporter and CMP-sialic acid transporter.
Human UDP-galactose transporter (hUGT1) and CMP-sialic acid transporter (hCST) are related Golgi proteins with eight putative transmembrane helices predicted by computer analysis. We constructed chimeric molecules in which segments of various lengths from the C- or N-terminus of hUGT1 were replaced by corresponding portions of hCST. The chimeras were transiently expressed in UGT-deficient mutant Lec8 cells, and their UGT activity was assessed by the binding of GS-II lectin to the transfected cells. The replacement of either the N- or C-terminal cytoplasmic segment by that of hCST did not affect the expression or activity of hUGT1. A chimera in which the eighth helix and the C-terminal tail were replaced also retained the UGT activity, indicating that this helix is not involved in the determination of substrate specificity. In contrast, three types of chimeras, in which the first helix, the first and the second helices, and a segment from the seventh helix to the C-terminus were replaced, respectively, were expressed very infrequently in the transfected cells, and had no UGT activity. They are likely folded incorrectly and degraded by a quality-control system, since the amounts of their mRNAs were normal and the proteins were mainly localized in the ER. The first and the seventh helices are important for the stability of the transporter protein. (+info)
HRD gene dependence of endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation.
Work from several laboratories has indicated that many different proteins are subject to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) degradation by a common ER-associated machinery. This machinery includes ER membrane proteins Hrd1p/Der3p and Hrd3p and the ER-associated ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes Ubc7p and Ubc6p. The wide variety of substrates for this degradation pathway has led to the reasonable hypothesis that the HRD (Hmg CoA reductase degradation) gene-encoded proteins are generally involved in ER protein degradation in eukaryotes. We have tested this model by directly comparing the HRD dependency of the ER-associated degradation for various ER membrane proteins. Our data indicated that the role of HRD genes in protein degradation, even in this highly defined subset of proteins, can vary from absolute dependence to complete independence. Thus, ER-associated degradation can occur by mechanisms that do not involve Hrd1p or Hrd3p, despite their apparently broad envelope of substrates. These data favor models in which the HRD gene-encoded proteins function as specificity factors, such as ubiquitin ligases, rather than as factors involved in common aspects of ER degradation. (+info)
Casein kinase I-dependent phosphorylation within a PEST sequence and ubiquitination at nearby lysines signal endocytosis of yeast uracil permease.
Uracil uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mediated by the FUR4-encoded uracil permease. The modification of uracil permease by phosphorylation at the plasma membrane is a key mechanism for regulating endocytosis of this protein. This modification in turn facilitates its ubiquitination and internalization. Following endocytosis, the permease is targeted to the lysosome/vacuole for proteolysis. We have previously shown that uracil permease is phosphorylated at several serine residues within a well characterized N-terminal PEST sequence. In this report, we provide evidence that lysine residues 38 and 41, adjacent to the PEST sequence, are the target sites for ubiquitination of the permease. Conservative substitutions at both Lys(38) and Lys(41) give variant permeases that are phosphorylated but fail to internalize. The PEST sequence contains potential phosphorylation sites conforming to the consensus sequences for casein kinase 1. Casein kinase 1 (CK1) protein kinases, encoded by the redundant YCKI and YCK2 genes, are located at the plasma membrane. Either alone supports growth, but loss of function of both is lethal. Here, we show that in CK1-deficient cells, the permease is poorly phosphorylated and poorly ubiquitinated. Moreover, CK1 overproduction rescued the defective endocytosis of a mutant permease in which the serine phosphoacceptors were replaced by threonine (a less effective phosphoacceptor), which suggests that Yck activity may play a direct role in phosphorylating the permease. Permease internalization was not greatly affected in CK1-deficient cells, despite the low level of ubiquitination of the protein. This may be due to CK1 having a second counteracting role in endocytosis as shown by the higher turnover of variant permeases with unphosphorylatable versions of the PEST sequence. (+info)
WW domains of Rsp5p define different functions: determination of roles in fluid phase and uracil permease endocytosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Rsp5p, ubiquitin-protein ligase, an enzyme of the ubiquitination pathway, contains three WW domains that mediate protein-protein interactions. To determine if these domains adapt Rsp5p to a subset of substrates involved in numerous cellular processes, we generated mutations in individual or combinations of the WW domains. The rsp5-w1, rsp5-w2, and rsp5-w3 mutant alleles complement RSP5 deletions at 30 degrees. Thus, individual WW domains are not essential. Each rsp5-w mutation caused temperature-sensitive growth. Among variants with mutations in multiple WW domains, only rsp5-w1w2 complemented the deletion. Thus, the WW3 domain is sufficient for Rsp5p essential functions. To determine whether rsp5-w mutations affect endocytosis, fluid phase and uracil permease (Fur4p) endocytosis was examined. The WW3 domain is important for both processes. WW2 appears not to be important for fluid phase endocytosis whereas it is important for Fur4p endocytosis. In contrast, the WW1 domain affects fluid phase endocytosis, but it does not appear to function in Fur4p endocytosis. Thus, various WW domains play different roles in the endocytosis of these two substrates. Rsp5p is located in the cytoplasm in a punctate pattern that does not change during the cell cycle. Altering WW domains does not change the location of Rsp5p. (+info)