A hydrogen-bonding triad stabilizes the chemical transition state of a group I ribozyme.
BACKGROUND: The group I intron is an RNA enzyme capable of efficiently catalyzing phosphoryl-transfer reactions. Functional groups that stabilize the chemical transition state of the cleavage reaction have been identified, but they are all located within either the 5'-exon (P1) helix or the guanosine cofactor, which are the substrates of the reaction. Functional groups within the ribozyme active site are also expected to assist in transition-state stabilization, and their role must be explored to understand the chemical basis of group I intron catalysis. RESULTS: Using nucleotide analog interference mapping and site-specific functional group substitution experiments, we demonstrate that the 2'-OH at A207, a highly conserved nucleotide in the ribozyme active site, specifically stabilizes the chemical transition state by approximately 2 kcal mol-1. The A207 2'-OH only makes its contribution when the U(-1) 2'-OH immediately adjacent to the scissile phosphate is present, suggesting that the 2'-OHs of A207 and U(-1) interact during the chemical step. CONCLUSIONS: These data support a model in which the 3'-oxyanion leaving group of the transesterification reaction is stabilized by a hydrogen-bonding triad consisting of the 2'-OH groups of U(-1) and A207 and the exocyclic amine of G22. Because all three nucleotides occur within highly conserved non-canonical base pairings, this stabilization mechanism is likely to occur throughout group I introns. Although this mechanism utilizes functional groups distinctive of RNA enzymes, it is analogous to the transition states of some protein enzymes that perform similar phosphoryl-transfer reactions. (+info)
Altered expression levels of SEF-2 and p112 in the rat hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia: identification by mRNA differential display.
The authors used mRNA differential display to identify genes whose expression levels are altered in the adult rat hippocampus 24 hours after global ischemia. At this time after challenge, the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, SEF-2, and the 26S proteasome complex subunit, p112, were identified as genes whose expression levels are decreased and increased, respectively, in the hippocampus. To determine the spatial and temporal patterns of expression change for each gene, the authors antisense in situ hybridization to paired brain sections of sham-operated and global ischemia-challenged rats at 6, 12, and 24 hours after reperfusion SEF-2 expression was not significantly altered from that of sham-operated controls in any hippocampal subfield at or before 12 hours after challenge. At 24 hours after ischemia, however, SEF-2 expression levels were significantly diminished in the vulnerable CA1 subfield, but not in the less vulnerable CA3 or dentate granule cell subfields. The proteasome p112 subunit gene displayed no change in expression levels at 6 hours after insult; however, an elevated expression was observed at 12 hours after challenge in the dentate granule cell subfield. By 24 hours after challenge, p112 expression was significantly elevated in both the CA1 and dentate granule cell subfields. These results demonstrate that a member of the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors, SEF-2, and the major subunit of the 26S proteasome complex, p112, display altered gene expression in the hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia. (+info)
Unique expression patterns of myosin heavy chain genes in the ductus arteriosus and uterus of rabbits.
In smooth muscle tissue, two smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms (SM1, SM2) and two non-muscle MHC isoforms (NMA, NMB) have been identified. The purpose of our study was to clarify whether smooth muscle MHC mRNA expression reflects the physiological and functional state of the muscle. We studied the expression pattern of MHC mRNAs, using the S1-nuclease mapping procedure, in functionally and morphologically changeable organs; the ductus arteriosus (DA) during development (25 and 29 days of gestation, and from 3-day-old neonates) and uteri from virgin, day-10 pregnant (P10) and day-29 pregnant (P29) rabbits. The results demonstrated that SM2 expression was greater in the fetal DA than in the fetal aortic and pulmonary arteries, but that it decreased significantly following closure of DA. In the gravid uterus, SM1 expression was significantly (P<0.05) strong compared to other MHC mRNAs from virgin to P10 rabbits. During pregnancy, NMB expression showed a tendency to increase until P10, and after P10, SM2 expression increased dramatically and NMB expression decreased to give almost a mirror image of the SM2 expression. Smooth muscle type (SM1, SM2) was significantly (P<0.05) strong compared to non-muscle type expression (NMA, NMB) at P29. These data suggest that smooth muscle MHC mRNA, especially SM2 expression reflects the physiological and functional state of the smooth muscle. (+info)
Genetic diversity and epidemiology of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Alaska.
Forty-two infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) isolates from Alaska were analyzed using the ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) and nucleotide sequencing. RPA analyses, utilizing 4 probes, N5, N3 (N gene), GF (G gene), and NV (NV gene), determined that the haplotypes of all 3 genes demonstrated a consistent spatial pattern. Virus isolates belonging to the most common haplotype groups were distributed throughout Alaska, whereas isolates in small haplotype groups were obtained from only 1 site (hatchery, lake, etc.). The temporal pattern of the GF haplotypes suggested a 'genetic acclimation' of the G gene, possibly due to positive selection on the glycoprotein. A pairwise comparison of the sequence data determined that the maximum nucleotide diversity of the isolates was 2.75% (10 mismatches) for the NV gene, and 1.99% (6 mismatches) for a 301 base pair region of the G gene, indicating that the genetic diversity of IHNV within Alaska is notably lower than in the more southern portions of the IHNV North American range. Phylogenetic analysis of representative Alaskan sequences and sequences of 12 previously characterized IHNV strains from Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California (USA) and British Columbia (Canada) distinguished the isolates into clusters that correlated with geographic origin and indicated that the Alaskan and British Columbia isolates may have a common viral ancestral lineage. Comparisons of multiple isolates from the same site provided epidemiological insights into viral transmission patterns and indicated that viral evolution, viral introduction, and genetic stasis were the mechanisms involved with IHN virus population dynamics in Alaska. The examples of genetic stasis and the overall low sequence heterogeneity of the Alaskan isolates suggested that they are evolutionarily constrained. This study establishes a baseline of genetic fingerprint patterns and sequence groups representing the genetic diversity of Alaskan IHNV isolates. This information could be used to determine the source of an IHN outbreak and to facilitate decisions in fisheries management of Alaskan salmonid stocks. (+info)
CD34 splice variant: an attractive marker for selection of gene-modified cells.
This study presents a promising selection system for gene-modified cells other than human hematopoietic progenitor and endothelial cells based on transgenic expression of human CD34. Three retrovirally transduced variants of CD34 were compared, differing in the length of their cytoplasmic domains. These were the full-length transmembrane protein (flCD34), a truncated form (tCD34) that is found as a naturally occurring splice variant and has a partial deletion of the cytoplasmic domain for signal transduction, and an engineered variant which is completely deprived of its cytoplasmic tail (dCD34). All three variants allowed selection of gene-modified cells using commercially available immunoaffinity technology. However, examination by flow cytometry as well as by Southern, Northern, and Western blot revealed that dCD34, as opposed to tCD34, is not stably anchored in the membrane and thus is expressed at low levels on the surface of transduced cells. Therefore, tCD34 was chosen as the more promising candidate for a clinically applicable cell surface marker. We show that gene-modified human primary T lymphocytes expressing tCD34 can be enriched to high purity (>95%) using clinically approved immunoaffinity columns. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of tCD34 for surface marking of murine hematopoietic cells in vivo, including primary T lymphocytes detected 9 weeks after bone marrow transplantation. (+info)
Mapping of RNA accessible sites by extension of random oligonucleotide libraries with reverse transcriptase.
A rapid and simple method for determining accessible sites in RNA that is independent of the length of target RNA and does not require RNA labeling is described. In this method, target RNA is allowed to hybridize with sequence-randomized libraries of DNA oligonucleotides linked to a common tag sequence at their 5'-end. Annealed oligonucleotides are extended with reverse transcriptase and the extended products are then amplified by using PCR with a primer corresponding to the tag sequence and a second primer specific to the target RNA sequence. We used the combination of both the lengths of the RT-PCR products and the location of the binding site of the RNA-specific primer to determine which regions of the RNA molecules were RNA extendible sites, that is, sites available for oligonucleotide binding and extension. We then employed this reverse transcription with the random oligonucleotide libraries (RT-ROL) method to determine the accessible sites on four mRNA targets, human activated ras (ha-ras), human intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), rabbit beta-globin, and human interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Our results were concordant with those of other researchers who had used RNase H cleavage or hybridization with arrays of oligonucleotides to identify accessible sites on some of these targets. Further, we found good correlation between sites when we compared the location of extendible sites identified by RT-ROL with hybridization sites of effective antisense oligonucleotides on ICAM-1 mRNA in antisense inhibition studies. Finally, we discuss the relationship between RNA extendible sites and RNA accessibility. (+info)
An oligonucleotide fingerprint normalized and expressed sequence tag characterized zebrafish cDNA library.
The zebrafish is a powerful system for understanding the vertebrate genome, allowing the combination of genetic, molecular, and embryological analysis. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) provide a rapid means of identifying an organism's genes for further analysis, but any EST project is limited by the availability of suitable libraries. Such cDNA libraries must be of high quality and provide a high rate of gene discovery. However, commonly used normalization and subtraction procedures tend to select for shorter, truncated, and internally primed inserts, seriously affecting library quality. An alternative procedure is to use oligonucleotide fingerprinting (OFP) to precluster clones before EST sequencing, thereby reducing the re-sequencing of common transcripts. Here, we describe the use of OFP to normalize and subtract 75,000 clones from two cDNA libraries, to a minimal set of 25,102 clones. We generated 25,788 ESTs (11,380 3' and 14,408 5') from over 16,000 of these clones. Clustering of 10,654 high-quality 3' ESTs from this set identified 7232 clusters (likely genes), corresponding to a 68% gene diversity rate, comparable to what has been reported for the best normalized human cDNA libraries, and indicating that the complete set of 25,102 clones contains as many as 17,000 genes. Yet, the library quality remains high. The complete set of 25,102 clones is available for researchers as glycerol stocks, filters sets, and as individual EST clones. These resources have been used for radiation hybrid, genetic, and physical mapping of the zebrafish genome, as well as positional cloning and candidate gene identification, molecular marker, and microarray development. (+info)
Kidney microsomal 25- and 1alpha-hydroxylase in vitamin D metabolism: catalytic properties, molecular cloning, cellular localization and expression during development.
Both a 25-hydroxylation and a 1alpha-hydroxylation are necessary for the conversion of vitamin D(3) into the calcium-regulating hormone 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3). According to current knowledge, the hepatic mitochondrial cytochrome P450 (CYP) 27A and microsomal CYP2D25 are able to catalyze the former bioactivation step. Substantial 25-hydroxylase activity has also been demonstrated in kidney. This paper describes the molecular cloning and characterization of a microsomal vitamin D(3) 25- and 1alpha-hydroxylase in kidney. The enzyme purified from pig kidney and the recombinant enzyme expressed in COS cells catalyzed 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D(3) and 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D(3) and, in addition, 1alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3). The cDNA encodes a protein of 500 amino acids. Both the DNA sequence and the deduced peptide sequence of the renal enzyme are homologous with those of the hepatic vitamin D(3) 25-hydroxylase CYP2D25. Genomic Southern blot analysis suggested the presence of a single gene for CYP2D25 in the pig. Immunohistochemistry experiments indicated that CYP2D25 is expressed almost exclusively in the cells of cortical proximal tubules. The expression of CYP2D25 in kidney, but not in liver, was much higher in the adult pig than in the newborn. These findings indicate a tissue-specific developmental regulation of CYP2D25. The results from the current and previous studies on renal vitamin D hydroxylations imply that CYP2D25 has a biological role in kidney. (+info)