We investigate here the effects of the incorporation of the nucleoside analogs araC (1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine) and ganciclovir (9-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl] guanine) into the DNA binding recognition sequence for the GATA-1 erythroid transcription factor. A 10-fold decrease in binding affinity was observed for the ganciclovir-substituted DNA complex in comparison to an unmodified DNA of the same sequence composition. AraC substitution did not result in any changes in binding affinity. 1H-15N HSQC and NOESY NMR experiments revealed a number of chemical shift changes in both DNA and protein in the ganciclovir-modified DNA-protein complex when compared to the unmodified DNA-protein complex. These changes in chemical shift and binding affinity suggest a change in the binding mode of the complex when ganciclovir is incorporated into the GATA DNA binding site. (+info)
(2/1525) Base pairing of anhydrohexitol nucleosides with 2,6-diaminopurine, 5-methylcytosine and uracil asbase moiety.
Hexitol nucleic acids (HNAs) with modified bases (5-methylcytosine, 2,6-diaminopurine or uracil) were synthesized. The introduction of the 5-methylcytosine base demonstrates that N -benzoylated 5-methylcytosyl-hexitol occurs as the imino tautomer. The base pairing systems (G:CMe, U:D, T:D and U:A) obey Watson-Crick rules. Substituting hT for hU, hCMefor hC and hD for hA generally leads to increased duplex stability. In a single case, replacement of hC by hCMedid not result in duplex stabilization. This sequence-specific effect could be explained by the geometry of the model duplex used for carrying out the thermal stability study. Generally, polypurine HNA sequences give more stable duplexes with their RNA complement than polypyrimidine HNA sequences. This observation supports the hypothesis that, besides changes in stacking pattern, the difference in conformational stress between purine and pyrimidine nucleosides may contribute to duplex stability. Introduction of hCMeand hD in HNA sequences further increases the potential of HNA to function as a steric blocking agent. (+info)
(3/1525) Smoothing of the thermal stability of DNA duplexes by using modified nucleosides and chaotropic agents.
The effect of alkyltrimethylammonium ions on the thermostability of natural and modified DNA duplexes has been investigated. We have shown that the use of tetramethylammonium ions TMA+along with the chemical modification of duplexes allow the fine adjustment of T m and the possibility of obtaining several duplex systems with varied isostabilizedtemperatures, some of which show greater stability than those of natural DNA. This approach could be very useful for DNA sequencing by hybridization. (+info)
(4/1525) A new synthesis of 5'-deoxy-8,5'-cyclo-adenosine and -inosine: conformationally-fixed purine nucleosides (nucleosides and nucleotides. XVI).
A versatile method for the synthesis of 5'-deoxy-8,5'-cycloadenosine, a conformationally-fixed "anti" type of adenosine, was presented. Irradiation of 2', 3'-O-isopropylidene-5'-deoxy-5'-phenylthioadenosine with 60W Hg vapor lamp afforded 2',3'-O-isopropylidene-5'-deoxy-8,5'-cycloadenosine in high yield. The use of other 5'-alkylthio derivatives also gave the cycloadenosine, though the yields were rather poor. Deacetonation of the cyclocompound with 0.1N HCl gave 5'-deoxy-8,5'-cycloadenosine. The cycloinosine derivative was similarly prepared. The nmr, mass and CD spectra of 5'-deoxy-8,5'-cycloadenosine were given and discussed with the previously reported results. (+info)
(5/1525) Hypotension induced by exercise is associated with enhanced release of adenyl purines from aged rat artery.
To determine whether the antihypertensive effects of exercise are associated with release of ATP and its metabolites from arteries, we assayed blood pressure and the release of adenine nucleotides and nucleosides from the caudal arteries of exercised and sedentary aged hypercholesterolemic rats. Exercise on a treadmill for 12 wk significantly decreased the rise in systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 7.5 and 15.9%, respectively, with advanced age. The concentrations of oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids in the caudal artery decreased significantly with exercise, demonstrating an association between exercise and the unsaturation index of caudal arterial fatty acids. The amounts of total adenyl purines released by the arterial segments from exercised rats, both spontaneously and in response to norepinephrine, were significantly greater by 80.0 and 60.7%, respectively, than those released by tissues from sedentary rats. These results suggest that exercise alters the membrane fatty acid composition in aged rats as well as the release of ATP from vascular endothelial cells and that these factors are associated with the regression of the rise in blood pressure normally observed with advanced age. (+info)
(6/1525) Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genetic evolution in patients with prolonged suppression of plasma viremia.
Treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients with combination drug regimens results in a reduction of plasma viral load to levels below the limit of detection. To investigate the genomic fluctuations in HIV-1 populations from long-term responders to antiviral therapies we analyzed the viral sequence evolution of env and pol genes from sequential peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) DNA samples of three infected patients. Analyses of sequences covering the V3 and flanking env regions obtained from blood samples at the beginning of the therapy and at 14 or 24 months from baseline revealed that HIV-1 quasispecies continue to evolve in the three patients following combination antiretroviral therapy. Minor drug-resistant mutant subpopulations were also searched for and found in one patient. Interestingly, no minor resistant subpopulations were found in the other two patients despite the fact that they showed evidence of ongoing viral replication. Finally, the genetic analysis of the env gene shows a reduction in PBMC env viral population diversity after long-term response to the therapy in all the patients analyzed. (+info)
(7/1525) In vitro anti-human immunodeficiency virus activities of Z- and E-methylenecyclopropane nucleoside analogues and their phosphoro-L-alaninate diesters.
Nucleoside analogues with a Z- or an E-methylenecyclopropane moiety were synthesized and examined for activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in vitro. The addition of a methyl phenyl phosphoro-L-alaninate moiety to modestly active analogues resulted in potentiation of their anti-HIV-1 activity. Two such compounds, designated QYL-685 (with 2,6-diaminopurine) and QYL-609 (with adenine), were most potent against HIV-1 in vitro, with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 0.034 and 0.0026 microM, respectively, in MT-2 cell-based assays. Both compounds were active against zidovudine-resistant, didanosine-resistant, and multi-dideoxynucleoside-resistant infectious clones in vitro. Further development of these analogues as potential therapies for HIV-1 infection is warranted. (+info)
(8/1525) Dynamic correlation of apoptosis and immune activation during treatment of HIV infection.
T cells from HIV infected patients undergo spontaneous apoptosis at a faster rate than those from uninfected patients, are abnormally susceptible to activation induced cell death (AICD), and undergo increased apoptosis in response to Fas receptor ligation. These observations have led to the hypothesis CD4 T cell apoptosis may be a mechanism of CD4 T cell depletion and the pathogenesis of AIDS. Successful treatment of HIV infected patients is accompanied by quantitative and qualitative improvements in immune function reflecting at least partial reversibility of the underlying pathogenesis of HIV. In this report we correlate improvements in markers of immune function with a decrease in apoptosis, and changes in its regulation. Therapy with nelfinavir plus saquinavir in combination with two nucleoside analogue inhibitors of reverse transcriptase dramatically reduces plasma viremia and increases CD4 T cell counts. Coincident with these improvements, CD38 and HLA-DR coexpression on both CD4 and CD8 T cells decrease, and CD45RA and CD62L coexpression increase. Furthermore, spontaneous apoptosis decreases in both CD4 and CD8 T cells (CD4 apoptosis 17.4 vs 2.6%, P=0.005; CD8 apoptosis 15.0 vs 1.0%, P<0.001), as does both Fas mediated apoptosis (CD4 apoptosis 19.0 vs 3.5%, P=0.03; CD8 apoptosis 13.7 vs 1.5%, P=0.002) and CD3 induced AICD (CD4 apoptosis 13.7 vs 3.2%, P=0.001; CD8 apoptosis 29 vs 2.2%, P=0.08). Changes in apoptosis are not associated with changes in Fas receptor expression, but are significantly correlated with changes in activation marker profiles. Although this suggests a possible regulatory role for the apoptosis inhibitory protein FLIP, direct assessment did not reveal quantitative differences in FLIP expression between apoptosis resistant PBL's from HIV negative patients, and apoptosis sensitive PBL's from HIV positive patients. These findings support the hypothesis that apoptosis mediates HIV induced CD4 T cell depletion, but indicate the need for further studies into the molecular regulation of HIV induced apoptosis. (+info)