Despite many uncertainties concerning mechanism, synthetic single-strand antisense deoxyribonucleic acids (DNAs) are now in clinical trials for the chemotherapy of viral infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human papilloma virus; several cancers, including follicular lymphoma and acute myelogenous leukemia; inflammatory processes such as Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis and in allergic disorders. There are approximately 10 trials, and early results are generally encouraging. Therefore, the expectation is that antisense DNAs will be important to future chemotherapy. The question considered here is whether antisense DNAs will also be important to future nuclear medicine imaging. While efforts toward developing antisense imaging are comparatively nonexistent thus far, investigations into the mechanisms of cellular transport and localization and the development of a second generation of antisense DNAs have occurred largely within the antisense chemotherapy industry. Fortunately, many of the properties of DNA for antisense imaging, such as high in vivo stability and adequate cell membrane transport, are the same as those for antisense chemotherapy. Unfortunately, interests diverge in the case of several other key properties. For example, rapid localization and clearance kinetics of the radiolabel and prolonged retention in the target are requirements unique to nuclear medicine. No doubt the development of antisense imaging will continue to benefit from improvements in the antisense chemotherapy industry. However, a considerable effort will be required to optimize this approach for imaging (and radiotherapy). The potential of specifically targeting virtually any disease or normal tissue should make this effort worthwhile. (+info)
Patient education in nuclear medicine technology practice.
This is the second article of a two-part series on patient education. This article builds on the first one by discussing some of the unique considerations in providing patient education in the nuclear medicine department. Concrete strategies for nuclear medicine technology practice are discussed here. After reading this article, the technologist should be able to: (a) describe the affective and technical aspects of the nuclear medicine technologist's role as a patient educator; (b) identify some strategies that nuclear medicine technologists can use to become better teachers; and (c) describe factors that affect patient learning in the nuclear medicine department and some approaches to overcome or minimize learning barriers. (+info)
Assessing the use of nuclear medicine technology in sub-Saharan Africa: the essential equipment list.
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of the survey was to determine the core equipment required in a nuclear medicine department in public hospitals in Kenya and South Africa, and evaluate the capital investment requirements. METHODS: Physical site audits of equipment and direct interviews of medical and clinical engineering professionals were performed, as well as examination of tender and purchase documents, maintenance payment receipts, and other relevant documents. Originally, 10 public hospitals were selected: 6 referral and 4 teaching hospitals. The 6 referral hospitals were excluded from the survey due to lack of essential documents and records on equipment. The medical and technical staff from these hospitals were, however, interviewed on equipment usage and technical constraints. Data collection was done on-site and counter-checked against documents provided by the hospital administration. RESULTS: A list of essential equipment for a nuclear medicine department in sub-Saharan Africa was identified. Quotations for equipment were provided by all major equipment suppliers, local and international. CONCLUSION: A nuclear medicine department requires eight essential pieces of equipment to operate in sub-Saharan Africa. Two additional items are desirable but not essential. (+info)
Decision analysis in nuclear medicine.
This review focuses primarily on the methodology involved in properly reviewing the literature for performing a meta-analysis and on methods for performing a formal decision analysis using decision trees. Issues related to performing a detailed metaanalysis with consideration of particular issues, including publication bias, verification bias and patient spectrum, are addressed. The importance of collecting conventional measures of test performance (e.g., sensitivity and specificity) and of changes in patient management to model the cost-effectiveness of a management algorithm is detailed. With greater utilization of the techniques discussed in this review, nuclear medicine researchers should be well prepared to compete for the limited resources available in the current health care environment. Furthermore, nuclear medicine physicians will be better prepared to best serve their patients by using only those studies with a proven role in improving patient management. (+info)
Sensible approaches to avoid needle stick accidents in nuclear medicine.
OBJECTIVE: Needle sticks are a continuous concern in the health care environment because of the prevalence of bloodborne pathogens in today's society. Radioactive contamination is another concern with needle sticks during nuclear medicine and nuclear pharmacy procedures. In our institution, substantial efforts have been made to prevent needle sticks, but they still occur occasionally. The purpose of this project was to analyze different practices and products to determine the best protocol in an effort to avoid further needle sticks. METHODS: The nuclear medicine technologists were surveyed to determine how many needle sticks have occurred and the situation behind each occurrence. Using our initial survey, the circumstances involved in each incident were reviewed, suggestions considered, and various means of protection analyzed. Five options were presented in a second survey. RESULTS: The results of the second survey showed that technologists favored the newly designed needle-capping blocks for preventing needle sticks in their daily routine procedures. CONCLUSION: The newly designed needle-capping block is best suited for both nuclear medicine and nuclear pharmacy laboratories. We will continue to monitor the effectiveness of this new approach in preventing needle sticks. (+info)
Pediatric nuclear medicine, Part I: Developmental cues.
OBJECTIVE: Children provide a continuous challenge for the nuclear medicine technologist. The task of successfully completing a nuclear medicine procedure varies little among a 20-y-old, a 40-y-old and a 60-y-old patient. Successful completion of a procedure varies much more among a 2-y-old, a 4-y-old and a 6-y-old. Successfully completing a pediatric nuclear medicine procedure includes quick acquisitions, technically acceptable images or calculations, and satisfied patients and parents. Understanding your patient is crucial, and it provides the parents with a greater sense of comfort and confidence about the nuclear medicine technologist and the procedure. After reading this article the nuclear medicine technologist should be able to: (a) discuss the developmental stages of children according to several major theories; (b) identify the physical and mental expectations for each age group; (c) explain applications for incorporating this information into common pediatric nuclear medicine practice; and (d) discuss the common realities surrounding the behavior of children and their parents. A second article will feature tips, indications and populations for common pediatric procedures. (+info)
Nuclear pharmacy, Part I: Emergence of the specialty of nuclear pharmacy.
OBJECTIVE: Nuclear pharmacy was the first formally recognized area in pharmacy designated as a specialty practice. The events leading to nuclear pharmacy specialty recognition are described in this article. After reading this article the nuclear medicine technologist or nuclear pharmacist should be able to: (a) describe the status of nuclear pharmacy before recognition as a specialty practice; (b) describe the events that stimulated pharmacists to organize a professional unit to meet the needs of nuclear pharmacists; and (c) identify the steps by which nuclear pharmacists become board certified in nuclear pharmacy. (+info)
Pediatric nuclear medicine, Part II: Common procedures and considerations.
OBJECTIVE: This paper introduces technologists to pediatric nuclear medicine applications as well as serves as a review of the principles of pediatric imaging for more experienced technologists. After reading this article the nuclear medicine technologist should be able to: (a) identify pediatric populations commonly evaluated with nuclear medicine procedures; (b) state the indications for performing pediatric nuclear medicine procedures; and (c) discuss strategies and tips for performing nuclear medicine procedures on pediatric patients. (+info)