Sarcoidosis of the upper respiratory tract and its association with lupus pernio.
In a series of 34 patients with sarcoidosis affecting the upper respiratory tract and nose, 26 had lupus pernio (LP) and 17 had sarcoidosis of the upper respiratory tract (SURT). In nine patients these features coexisted. A patient presenting with SURT carried a 50% risk of developing LP although one feature could be present without the other. Both were disorders of women of the child-bearing years of life. SURT, like LP, was an indicator of chronic fibrotic sarcoidosis, developing insidiously and progressing indolently over the years. It was complicated by ulceration, septal perforation, and LP. Three patients had nasal septal perforations, in two instances following submucous resection. This operation is contraindicated in patients with active sarcoidosis, particularly when granulomas are found on nasal biopsy. The Kveim-Siltzbach skin test was positive in all patients with SURT, making it invaluable in the differential diagnosis of granuloma of the nasal cavity. (+info)
Midfacial complications of prolonged cocaine snorting.
Acute and chronic ingestion of cocaine predisposes the abuser to a wide range of local and systemic complications. This article describes the case of a 38-year-old man whose chronic cocaine snorting resulted in the erosion of the midfacial anatomy and recurrent sinus infections. Previously published case reports specific to this problem are presented, as are the oral, systemic and behavioural effects of cocaine abuse. (+info)
Evaluation and outcome of patients with chronic non-productive cough using a comprehensive diagnostic protocol.
BACKGROUND: Asthma, post-nasal drip syndrome (PNDS), and gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) account for many cases of chronic non-productive cough (CNPC). Each may simultaneously contribute to cough even when clinically silent, and failure to recognise their contribution may lead to unsuccessful treatment. METHODS: Patients (all lifetime non-smokers with normal chest radiographs and spirometric measurements) referred with CNPC persisting for more than three weeks as their sole respiratory symptom underwent histamine challenge, home peak flow measurements, ear, nose and throat (ENT) examination, sinus CT scanning, and 24 hour oesophageal pH monitoring. Treatment was prescribed on the basis of diagnoses informed by investigation results. RESULTS: Forty three patients (29 women) of mean age 47.5 years (range 18-77) and mean cough duration 67 months (range 2-240) were evaluated. On the basis of a successful response to treatment, a cause for the cough was identified in 35 patients (82%) as follows: cough variant asthma (CVA) (10 cases), PNDS (9 cases), GOR (8 cases), and dual aetiologies (8 cases). Histamine challenge correctly predicted CVA in 15 of 17 (88%) positive tests. ENT examination and sinus CT scans each had low positive predictive values for PNDS (10 of 16 (63%) and 12 of 18 (67%) positive cases, respectively), suggesting that upper airways disease frequently co-exists but does not always contribute to cough. When negative, histamine challenge and 24 hour oesophageal pH monitoring effectively ruled out CVA and GOR, respectively, as a cause for cough. CONCLUSION: This comprehensive approach aids the accurate direction of treatment and, while CVA, PNDS and GOR remain the most important causes of CNPC to consider, a group with no identifiable aetiology remains. (+info)
Acceptance and effects of nasal lavage in volunteer woodworkers.
Wood dust is an irritant and is carcinogenic to the nasal mucosa. It inhibits its own clearance from the nose. It therefore makes sense to lavage retained wood dust from the nose following exposure. To our knowledge this is the second study conducted to determine whether the procedure of nasal lavage reduces nasal symptoms in woodworkers. Forty-six woodworkers from 150 approached volunteered to trial nasal lavage using gravity fed, home-made unbuffered isotonic saline for 2 months in a crossover trial and then be followed-up a year later. The group reported significantly decreased nasal symptoms and over half continued to use nasal lavage voluntarily after 1 year. Results support the findings of the previous study that nasal lavage improves nasal symptoms and supplements those findings with data indicating patterns of voluntary usage following the study's conclusion. It is concluded that nasal lavage is an acceptable, effective and inexpensive option with minimal side effects for woodworkers who experience nasal symptoms and who wish to try the procedure. (+info)
Midline destructive lesions of the sinonasal tract: simplified terminology based on histopathologic criteria.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Destructive lesions of the sinonasal tract, lacking a discernible etiology and referred to as midline destructive disease, have been pathologically classified in accordance with a variety of confusing terms. Development of new pathologic concepts and immunohistochemical techniques has provided a fresh understanding of these lesions, and, as a result, they can be unified into two distinct pathologic groups: Wegener's granulomatosis and non-Hodgkin's T-cell lymphoma. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the imaging studies and pathologic specimens of seven patients with prior diagnoses included in the midline destructive disease group. The specimens were reviewed by an oral pathologist using currently accepted pathologic criteria and the newly available immunohistochemical markers CD20, CD45, and CD45RO. Lesions were classified as non-Hodgkin's T-cell lymphomas when positive for CD45 and CD45RO and negative for CD20, and as Wegener's granulomatosis in the presence of noncaseating multinucleated giant cell granulomas and necrotizing vasculitis. RESULTS: Three of the lesions were reclassified as Wegener's granulomatosis and four as T-cell lymphomas after applying these pathologic criteria. There were no distinguishing imaging findings between Wegener's granulomatosis and non-Hodgkin's T-cell lymphoma. CONCLUSION: The current pathologic classification for midline destructive disease should be incorporated into the radiologic lexicon and the use of terms from the old classification system, such as idiopathic midline granuloma and lethal midline granuloma, should be abandoned and no longer be used in radiologic reports. (+info)
Progressive septal and palatal perforation secondary to intranasal cocaine abuse.
Septal perforation from intranasal cocaine abuse is well recognised. We present a case of progressive septal as well as palatal perforation. Progression from septal perforation to palatal perforation occurred after cessation of intranasal cocaine abuse. This patient had a weakly positive cytoplasmic antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (C-ANCA) but no histologic evidence of Wegener's Granulomatosis. The differential diagnosis for septal and palatal perforation is reviewed. This case represents the fifth reported case of palatal perforation secondary to cocaine abuse in the literature, and the second associated with positive C-ANCA. (+info)
Importance of nasal lesions in early lepromatous leprosy.
There are some 20 million people in the world with leprosy. In the lepromatous form of the illness the nose becomes infected very early in the disease process. The nasal discharge which occurs is heavily bacillated and is the most potent source of exit of Mycobacterium leprae from the body. The necessity for early diagnosis and treatment of leprosy in the absence of an effective vaccine is discussed and the pathological changes that occur in the nose are outlined. The roles which the leprologist and the rhinologist are able to play are mentioned. (+info)
Sinonasal tract eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis. A report of three cases.
Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF) is a rare submucosal fibrosis without a well-developed differential diagnosis. Three cases of sinonasal tract EAF were identified in 2 women and 1 man, aged 49, 64, and 28 years, respectively. The patients experienced a nasal cavity mass, maxillary pain, or nasal obstructive symptoms of long duration. The process involved the nasal septum (n = 2), nasal cavity (n = 1), and/or the maxillary sinus (n = 1). There was no evidence for Wegener granulomatosis, Churg-Strauss syndrome, Kimura disease, granuloma faciale, or erythema elevatum diutinum. Histologically, the lesions demonstrated a characteristic perivascular "onion-skin" fibrosis and a full spectrum of inflammatory cells, although eosinophils predominated. Necrosis and foreign body-type giant cells were not identified. Surgical excision was used for all patients, who are all alive but with disease at last follow-up. Sinonasal tract EAF is a unique fibroproliferative disorder that does not seem to have systemic associations with known diseases. The characteristic histomorphologic features permit accurate diagnosis. (+info)