Rising tide of cardiovascular disease in American Indians. The Strong Heart Study.
BACKGROUND: Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) used to be rare among American Indians, Indian Health Service data suggest that CVD mortality rates vary greatly among American Indian communities and appear to be increasing. The Strong Heart Study was initiated to investigate CVD and its risk factors in American Indians in 13 communities in Arizona, Oklahoma, and South/North Dakota. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 4549 participants (1846 men and 2703 women 45 to 74 years old) who were seen at the baseline (1989 to 1991) examination were subjected to surveillance (average 4.2 years, 1991 to 1995), and 88% of those remaining alive underwent a second examination (1993 to 1995). The medical records of all participants were exhaustively reviewed to ascertain nonfatal cardiovascular events that occurred since the baseline examination or to definitively determine cause of death. CVD morbidity and mortality rates were higher in men than in women and were similar in the 3 geographic areas. Coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence rates among American Indian men and women were almost 2-fold higher than those in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Significant independent predictors of CVD in women were diabetes, age, obesity (inverse), LDL cholesterol, albuminuria, triglycerides, and hypertension. In men, diabetes, age, LDL cholesterol, albuminuria, and hypertension were independent predictors of CVD. CONCLUSIONS: At present, CHD rates in American Indians exceed rates in other US populations and may more often be fatal. Unlike other ethnic groups, American Indians appear to have an increasing incidence of CHD, possibly related to the high prevalence of diabetes. In the general US population, the rising prevalence of obesity and diabetes may reverse the decline in CVD death rates. Therefore, aggressive programs to control diabetes and its risk factors are needed. (+info)
In situ detection of the Clostridium botulinum type C1 toxin gene in wetland sediments with a nested PCR assay.
A nested PCR was developed for detection of the Clostridium botulinum type C1 toxin gene in sediments collected from wetlands where avian botulism outbreaks had or had not occurred. The C1 toxin gene was detected in 16 of 18 sites, demonstrating both the ubiquitous distribution of C. botulinum type C in wetland sediments and the sensitivity of the detection assay. (+info)
Remote telemedical interpretation of neonatal echocardiograms: impact on clinical management in a primary care setting.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of telemedical echocardiographically assisted neonatal cardiovascular evaluation in a primary care setting. BACKGROUND: Neonates with congenital heart disease are frequently born far from pediatric subspecialty centers and can be clinically unstable at presentation. Recent advances in telecommunication technology have made it possible to transmit echocardiographic images over long distances. This technology may be beneficial to newborns with heart defects who are born in primary care centers. METHODS: A retrospective review of all telemedical echocardiograms obtained from neonates (aged 1 day to 30 days) was performed. A telemedical link was created using a T-1 transmission line and a standard voice telephone line between the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (pediatric cardiology site), and the Altru Clinic, Grand Forks, North Dakota (primary care site), which is a general pediatric practice 400 miles from Rochester. Neonates with possible cardiac disorders were identified by the general pediatricians, who then requested telemedical echocardiography. RESULTS: The 133 neonates had 161 T-1 echocardiograms. Median patient age was two days (range, one day to 29 days). One hundred thirty-two of 133 initial echocardiograms (99%) were obtained because of urgent indications. Transmitted images provided adequate diagnostic information in all patients. Seventy-nine neonates (59%) had a change in medical management or required cardiology follow-up. An immediate change in management occurred in 32 patients (24%), including seven in whom emergency transfer was either arranged or avoided. CONCLUSIONS: Telemedical echocardiography provides accurate diagnostic data in neonates. Rapid telediagnosis facilitates appropriate care of sick neonates with possible congenital heart disease in the primary care setting. Unnecessary long-distance transfers can be avoided with this technology. (+info)
Use of the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament in the strong heart study. Risk factors for clinical neuropathy.
OBJECTIVE: We used the Semmes-Weinstein 5.07 monofilament to assess the prevalence of foot insensitivity and its relationship to potential risk factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: There were 3,638 American Indian participants from Arizona, North and South Dakota, and Oklahoma who attended a study clinic on two occasions: baseline and follow-up, 4 years later. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed at the visits for those who had not previously been diagnosed as having diabetes. A total of 2,051 participants were diagnosed with diabetes before the study or at the subsequent study visits. At the follow-up visit, participants were tested for their ability to sense the 5.07 (10 g) monofilament at 10 sites of the foot. The prevalence of foot insensitivity was ascertained, and its relation to characteristics of participants was assessed in both univariate and logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Diabetic participants had a much higher prevalence of foot insensitivity (defined as greater than or equal to five incorrect responses) than nondiabetic participants (14 vs. 5%, respectively). However, marked foot insensitivity was uncommon within the first few years of diagnosis of diabetes. Among the diabetic participants, those diagnosed before study entry had the highest prevalence of foot insensitivity. The prevalence of foot insensitivity was highest in the Arizona Indians (22 vs. 9% in the Dakotas and 8% in Oklahoma). In a logistic regression analysis, foot insensitivity was significantly and independently related to center (Arizona versus others), age, duration of diabetes, and height. CONCLUSIONS: Marked foot insensitivity is prevalent in the diabetic American Indian population, especially in Indians in Arizona; however, this insensitivity is apparently uncommon for several years after the diagnosis of diabetes. The data show that Indians with diabetes are particularly vulnerable to the risk of foot ulceration and that the diagnostic screening of diabetes may lead to better prevention of sensory neuropathy and subsequent foot ulceration. (+info)
Glycemic control in diabetic American Indians. Longitudinal data from the Strong Heart Study.
OBJECTIVE: To describe glycemic control and identify correlates of elevated HbA1c levels in diabetic American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Study, which is a longitudinal study of cardiovascular disease in American Indians in Arizona, Oklahoma, South Dakota, and North Dakota. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This analysis is based on data from the baseline (1989-1992) and first follow-up (1994-1995) examinations of the Strong Heart Study. The 1,581 diabetic participants included in this analysis were aged 45-74 years at baseline, were diagnosed with diabetes before and at baseline, and had their HbA1c levels measured at follow-up. HbA1c was used as the index of glycemic control. Characteristics that may affect glycemic control were evaluated for cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships by analysis of covariance and multiple regression. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between median HbA1c at baseline (8.4%) and at follow-up (8.5%). Sex, age (inversely), and insulin and oral hypoglycemic agent therapy were significantly related to HbA1c levels in both the cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Current smoking, prior use of alcohol, and duration of diabetes were significant only for the cross-sectional data. Baseline HbA1c significantly and positively predicted HbA1c levels at follow-up. Comparison of HbA1c by therapy type shows that insulin therapy produced a significant decrease in HbA1c between the baseline and follow-up examinations. CONCLUSIONS: Glycemic control was poor among diabetic American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Study. Women, patients taking insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents, and younger individuals had the worst control of all the participants. Baseline HbA1c, and weight loss predicted worsening of control, whereas insulin therapy predicted improvement in control. Additional therapies and/or approaches are needed to improve glycemic control in this population. (+info)
Extensive transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from a child.
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Young children rarely transmit tuberculosis. In July 1998, infectious tuberculosis was identified in a nine-year-old boy in North Dakota who was screened because extrapulmonary tuberculosis had been diagnosed in his female guardian. The child, who had come from the Republic of the Marshall Islands in 1996, had bilateral cavitary tuberculosis. Because he was the only known possible source for his female guardian's tuberculosis, an investigation of the child's contacts was undertaken. We identified family, school, day-care, and other social contacts and notified these people of their exposure. We asked the contacts to complete a questionnaire and performed tuberculin skin tests. RESULTS: Of the 276 contacts of the child whom we tested, 56 (20 percent) had a positive tuberculin skin test (induration of at least 10 mm), including 3 of the child's 4 household members, 16 of his 24 classroom contacts, 10 of 32 school-bus riders, and 9 of 61 day-care contacts. A total of 118 persons received preventive therapy, including 56 young children who were prescribed preventive therapy until skin tests performed at least 12 weeks after exposure were negative. The one additional case identified was in the twin brother of the nine-year-old patient. The twin was not considered infectious on the basis of a sputum smear that was negative on microscopical examination. CONCLUSIONS: This investigation showed that a young child can transmit Mycobacterium tuberculosis to a large number of contacts. Children with tuberculosis, especially cavitary or laryngeal tuberculosis, should be considered potentially infectious, and screening of their contacts for infection with M. tuberculosis or active tuberculosis may be required. (+info)
Use of monoclonal antibodies for rapid diagnosis of respiratory viruses in a community hospital.
An indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA) procedure was used for the rapid detection of respiratory viruses in direct clinical specimens and for determining the epidemiology of viruses in a community hospital setting. Viral respiratory diseases were monitored for 10 consecutive respiratory seasons. The Bartels Viral Respiratory Screening and Identification Kit is an IFA method that contains pooled and individual monoclonal antibodies for seven common respiratory viruses. Compared with 8,670 conventional tube cell cultures, IFA staining of direct patient specimens had an overall sensitivity of 84.2% and a specificity of 87.7%. Yearly epidemics of respiratory syncytial virus were seen with alternating short and long intervals between successive periods when virus was isolated. Epidemics following short intervals were more severe. Influenza A virus epidemics occurred yearly, and influenza B virus activity was seen generally every other year. When influenza A and influenza B viruses were cocirculating in a given season, the months of peak activity of one virus were always within 1 month of the peak activity of the other virus. Parainfluenza virus type 1 was detected in the autumn of odd-numbered years, and parainfluenza type 2 virus was seen usually in the autumn of even-numbered years. Parainfluenza type 3 virus and adenovirus were the most ubiquitous agents, with peak incidence occurring in the late winter to spring. (+info)
Prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes in three American Indian populations. A comparison of the 1997 American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria and the 1985 World Health Organization diagnostic criteria: the Strong Heart Study.
OBJECTIVE: In 1997, the Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommended three new sets of criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes that were different from those established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1985. One of these three methods was based on a fasting plasma glucose value only. This article compares ADA criteria with WHO criteria by applying them to three subgroups of American Indians in the Strong Heart Study who had no known diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The Strong Heart Study is a prospective epidemiological study of vascular disease in three American Indian populations aged 45-74 years. During the baseline examination from 1988 to 1991, participants without diagnosed diabetes underwent a fasting glucose test and a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. These values were used to compare the ADA and WHO diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: By using fasting and 2-h glucose values, prevalence rates of undiagnosed diabetes were 15.9% according to WHO criteria and 14.4% according to ADA criteria. The overall agreement rate was 65%, and the weighted kappa statistic was 0.474, which indicates moderate agreement. The age-specific analysis showed that, among participants between 45 and 54 years of age, the prevalence rates of undiagnosed diabetes were 13.4% according to WHO criteria and 12.7% according to ADA criteria. Among those aged 55-74 years, the rates were 18.7% according to WHO criteria and 16.3% according to ADA criteria. Thus, the difference in the prevalence rates when using WHO and ADA criteria, although generally small in this population, was three times higher in the older group (2.4%) than the difference in the younger group (0.7%). CONCLUSIONS: The Strong Heart Study found that prevalence rates of undiagnosed diabetes determined by ADA criteria and WHO criteria were similar in its American Indian population. The data suggest that the difference between the two criteria may increase as age increases. Longitudinal data will be needed to evaluate further the utility of the two criteria. (+info)