The use of sodium borate impregnated silica gel plates for the separation of 3-0-methyl catecholamines from their corresponding catecholamines.
The use of sodium borate impregnated silica gel plates for the chromatographic separation of the catecholamines noradrenaline, adrenaline, and isoprenaline from their respective 3-0-methylated derivatives, normetanephrine, metanephrine, and methoxy-isoprenaline, is described. The parent catecholamines remain at the origin of the plates while the 3-0-methylated derivatives concentrate in discrete bands at the upper edge of the borate impregnated area (the "borate front"). (+info)
Randomised controlled trial of low dose fentanyl infusion in preterm infants with hyaline membrane disease.
AIM: To evaluate the effects of low dose fentanyl infusion analgesia on behavioural and neuroendocrine stress response and short term outcome in premature infants ventilated for hyaline membrane disease. METHODS: Twenty seven ventilated preterm infants were randomly assigned to receive a mean fentanyl infusion of 1.1 (0.08 SE) micrograms/kg/h for 75 (5) hours, and 28 untreated infants were considered a control group. A behavioural sedation score was used to assess the infants' behaviour. Urinary metanephrine and the normetanephrine:creatinine molar ratio were determined at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Outcome data and ventilatory indexes were recorded for each infant. RESULTS: The fentanyl group showed significantly lower behavioural stress scores and O2 desaturations than controls and lower urinary concentrations of metanephrine and normetanephrine at 24, 48, 72 hours. The two groups showed no significant difference in ventilatory variables or short term outcome. CONCLUSIONS: A short course of low dose fentanyl infusion reduces behavioural sedation scores, O2 desaturations and neuroendocrine stress response in preterm ventilated infants. (+info)
Plasma normetanephrine and metanephrine for detecting pheochromocytoma in von Hippel-Lindau disease and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.
BACKGROUND: The detection of pheochromocytomas in patients at risk for these tumors, such as patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease or multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN-2), is hindered by the inadequate sensitivity of commonly available biochemical tests. In this study we evaluated measurements of plasma normetanephrine and metanephrine for detecting pheochromocytomas in patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease or MEN-2. METHODS: We studied 26 patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease and 9 patients with MEN-2 who had histologically verified pheochromocytomas and 50 patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease or MEN-2 who had no radiologic evidence of pheochromocytoma. Von Hippel-Lindau disease and MEN-2 were diagnosed on the basis of germ-line mutations of the appropriate genes. The plasma concentrations of normetanephrine and metanephrine were compared with the plasma concentrations of catecholamines (norepinephrine and epinephrine) and urinary excretion of catecholamines, metanephrines, and vanillylmandelic acid. RESULTS: The sensitivity of measurements of plasma normetanephrine and metanephrine for the detection of tumors was 97 percent, whereas the other biochemical tests had a sensitivity of only 47 to 74 percent. All patients with MEN-2 had high plasma concentrations of metanephrine, whereas the patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease had almost exclusively high plasma concentrations of only normetanephrine. One patient with von Hippel-Lindau disease had a normal plasma normetanephrine concentration; this patient had a very small adrenal tumor (<1 cm). The high sensitivity of measurements of plasma normetanephrine and metanephrine was accompanied by a high level of specificity (96 percent). CONCLUSIONS: Measurements of plasma normetanephrine and metanephrine are useful in screening for pheochromocytomas in patients with a familial predisposition to these tumors. (+info)
A case of giant malignant phaeochromocytoma.
Malignant phaeochromocytoma is defined as the presence of tumour deposits at sites that are normally devoid of chromaffin cells. We report on a 63-year-old man who had a giant malignant phaeochromocytoma of the right adrenal gland that encased the inferior vena cava. The urinary excretion rates of catecholamines and their metabolites were normal, except for normetanephrine, which was excreted at a higher rate than normal. The tumour was surgically unresectable by laparotomy. Postoperatively, the patient was given a 4-month trial of subcutaneous octreotide and intravenous meta-iodobenzylguanidine I 131. Occult lung secondary tumours were first detected by meta-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy after 2 years, and the patient died of bone and lung metastases 1 year later. Because phaeochromocytoma is rare, local experience in managing this disease is limited. This report alerts physicians of the methods of diagnosing and managing surgically unresectable malignant phaeochromocytoma. (+info)
Quantification of unconjugated metanephrines in human plasma without interference by acetaminophen.
BACKGROUND: Pheochromocytoma is a rare cause of hypertension resulting from increased catecholamine secretion. We aimed to develop a method to measure unconjugated plasma normetanephrine (NMN) and metanephrine (MN) without interference from acetaminophen, a widely prescribed drug for headaches. METHODS: Plasma samples were obtained from 48 subjects (23 males, 25 females; mean age, 49 +/- 14 years; hypertension, n = 37) under resting conditions. Following extraction on solid-phase cation-exchange columns, unconjugated metanephrines were analyzed by HPLC with electrochemical detection and with 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylamine as an internal standard. Catecholamines were measured by HPLC. RESULTS: The assays were linear up to 2000 pg for NMN and for MN. Intraassay imprecisions (CVs) were 4.7% for NMN and 7.0% for MN, and the interassay CV was 12% for both NMN and MN. The limit of detection was 11 fmol for NMN and 17 fmol for MN. Ingestion of acetaminophen or its addition to plasma did not interfere with the MN peaks. Plasma NMN and MN were positively correlated (r = 0.52 and 0.49, respectively; P <0.01 for both) with the respective catecholamines. Plasma NMN (r = 0.27; P = 0.02) but not MN positively correlated with age, whereas only plasma catecholamines (and not metanephrines) were positively correlated (P <0.05) with diastolic blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: This sensitive MN assay is not affected by simultaneous acetaminophen medication, and reveals a correlation of metanephrines with plasma and urinary catecholamines and age but not with blood pressure. (+info)
Rapid analysis of metanephrine and normetanephrine in urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
BACKGROUND: Widely used HPLC methods for quantification of metanephrine and normetanephrine in urine often have long analysis times and are frequently plagued by drug interferences. We describe a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method designed to overcome these limitations. METHODS: Metanephrine and normetanephrine conjugates were converted to unconjugated metanephrine and normetanephrine by acid hydrolysis. To avoid the rapid decomposition of the deuterated internal standards (metanephrine-d(3) and normetanephrine-d(3)) under hydrolysis conditions, the internal standards were added after hydrolysis. Solid-phase extraction was used to isolate the hydrolyzed metanephrines from urine. Samples were concentrated by evaporation, then derivatized simultaneously with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide and N-methyl-bis-heptafluoro-butryamide at room temperature. RESULTS: The assay was linear from 25 to 7000 microg/L. The intraassay CVs were < 5 % and the interassay CVs < 12%. Comparison with a routine HPLC method (n = 192) by Deming regression yielded a slope of 1.00 +/- 0.02 microg/L, an intercept of -5.8 +/- 7.8 micro/L, and S(y/x) = 50.6 microg/L for metanephrine and a slope of 0.94 +/- 0.03, intercept of 19 +/- 11 microg/L, and S(y/x) = 60 microg/L for normetanephrine. The correlation coefficients (r) were calculated after log transformation of the data and gave r = 0.97 for metanephrine and r = 0.97 for normetanephrine. Interference from common medications or drug metabolites was seen in <1% of samples. The time between sequential injections was < 7 min. CONCLUSIONS: This new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay for total fractionated metanephrines is rapid, compares well with a standard HPLC assay, and avoids most drug interferences that commonly affect HPLC assays for urine metanephrines. (+info)
Validation of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for analysis of urinary conjugated metanephrine and normetanephrine for screening of pheochromocytoma.
BACKGROUND: Metanephrines are biochemical markers for tumors of the adrenal medulla (e.g., pheochromocytoma) and other tumors derived from neural crest cells (e.g., paragangliomas and neuroblastomas). We describe a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the measurement of urinary conjugated metanephrines. METHODS: We added 250 ng of d3-metanephrine (d3-MN) and 500 ng of d3-normetanephrine (d3-NMN) to 1 mL of urine samples as stable isotope internal standards. The samples were then acidified, hydrolyzed for 20 min in a 100 degree C water bath, neutralized, and prepared by solid-phase extraction. The methanol eluates were analyzed by LC-MS/MS in the selected-reaction-monitoring mode after separation on a reversed-phase amide C16 column. RESULTS: Multiple calibration curves for the analysis of urine MN and NMN exhibited consistent linearity and reproducibility in the range of 10-5000 microg/L. Interassay CVs were 5.7-8.6% at mean concentrations of 90-4854 microg/L for MN and NMN. The detection limit was 10 microg/L. Recovery of MN and NMN (144-2300 microg/L) added to urine was 91-114%. The regression equation for the LC-MS/MS (x) and colorimetric (y) methods was: y = 0.81x - 0.006 (r = 0.822; n = 110). The equation for the HPLC (x) and LC-MS/MS (y) methods was: y = 1.09x + 0.05 (r = 0.998; n = 40). CONCLUSIONS: The sensitivity and specificity of the MS/MS method for urinary conjugated metanephrines offer advantages over colorimetric, immunoassay, HPLC, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods because of elimination of drug interferences, high throughput, and short chromatographic run time. (+info)
A double column procedure for the simultaneous estimation of norepinephrine, normetanephrine, dopamine, 3-methoxytyramine and 5-hydroxytryptamine in brain tissue.
A double column procedure was devised for simultaneous estimation of norepinephrine, normetanephrine, dopamine, 3-methoxytyramine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine in brain tissue. Columns of aluminum oxide were placed on columns of Amberlite CG-50 by use of a specially devised column holder so that the effluent from the upper columns could flow directly into the lower ones. Perchloric acid extracts of brain samples were passed through the doubled columns after the pH was adjusted with K2CO3. Norepinephrine and dopamine in the extracts were adsorbed on aluminum oxide in the upper columns while normetanephrine, 3-methoxytyramine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine were retained by Amberlite CG-50 placed under the aluminum oxide columns. The amines adsorbed on both columns were eluted in a small volume of dilute HC1 and each of the amines was determined fluorometrically. Some modifications were incorporated into the existing methods for developing fluorescence from the amines to increase the sensitivity. The recovery rate throughout the entire procedure for the authentic amines added to brain homogenates was in the neighborhood of 90% or higher with little column to column variation. The procedure was tested in the estimation of the five amines on various parts of single brains of normal or pargyline-treated rats. (+info)