Retinal stimulates ATP hydrolysis by purified and reconstituted ABCR, the photoreceptor-specific ATP-binding cassette transporter responsible for Stargardt disease.
Many substrates for P-glycoprotein, an ABC transporter that mediates multidrug resistance in mammalian cells, have been shown to stimulate its ATPase activity in vitro. In the present study, we used this property as a criterion to search for natural and artificial substrates and/or allosteric regulators of ABCR, the rod photoreceptor-specific ABC transporter responsible for Stargardt disease, an early onset macular degeneration. ABCR was immunoaffinity purified to apparent homogeneity from bovine rod outer segments and reconstituted into liposomes. All-trans-retinal, a candidate ligand, stimulates the ATPase activity of ABCR 3-4-fold, with a half-maximal effect at 10-15 microM. 11-cis- and 13-cis-retinal show similar activity. All-trans-retinal stimulates the ATPase activity of ABCR with Michaelis-Menten behavior indicative of simple noncooperative binding that is associated with a rate-limiting enzyme-substrate intermediate in the pathway of ATP hydrolysis. Among 37 structurally diverse non-retinoid compounds, including nine previously characterized substrates or sensitizers of P-glycoprotein, only four show significant ATPase stimulation when tested at 20 microM. The dose-response curves of these four compounds are indicative of multiple binding sites and/or modes of interaction with ABCR. Two of these compounds, amiodarone and digitonin, can act synergistically with all-trans-retinal, implying that they interact with a site or sites on ABCR different from the one with which all-trans-retinal interacts. Unlike retinal, amiodarone appears to interact with both free and ATP-bound ABCR. Together with clinical observations on Stargardt disease and the localization of ABCR to rod outer segment disc membranes, these data suggest that retinoids, and most likely retinal, are the natural substrates for transport by ABCR in rod outer segments. These observations have significant implications for understanding the visual cycle and the pathogenesis of Stargardt disease and for the identification of compounds that could modify the natural history of Stargardt disease or other retinopathies associated with impaired ABCR function. (+info)
Apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in human and murine tumor cells are initiated by isoprenoids.
Diverse classes of phytochemicals initiate biological responses that effectively lower cancer risk. One class of phytochemicals, broadly defined as pure and mixed isoprenoids, encompasses an estimated 22,000 individual components. A representative mixed isoprenoid, gamma-tocotrienol, suppresses the growth of murine B16(F10) melanoma cells, and with greater potency, the growth of human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and human leukemic (HL-60) cells. beta-Ionone, a pure isoprenoid, suppresses the growth of B16 cells and with greater potency, the growth of MCF-7, HL-60 and human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells. Results obtained with diverse cell lines differing in ras and p53 status showed that the isoprenoid-mediated suppression of growth is independent of mutated ras and p53 functions. beta-Ionone suppressed the growth of human colon fibroblasts (CCD-18Co) but only when present at three-fold the concentration required to suppress the growth of Caco-2 cells. The isoprenoids initiated apoptosis and, concomitantly arrested cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Both suppress 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase activity. beta-Ionone and lovastatin interfered with the posttranslational processing of lamin B, an activity essential to assembly of daughter nuclei. This interference, we postulate, renders neosynthesized DNA available to the endonuclease activities leading to apoptotic cell death. Lovastatin-imposed mevalonate starvation suppressed the glycosylation and translocation of growth factor receptors to the cell surface. As a consequence, cells were arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. This rationale may apply to the isoprenoid-mediated G1-phase arrest of tumor cells. The additive and potentially synergistic actions of these isoprenoids in the suppression of tumor cell proliferation and initiation of apoptosis coupled with the mass action of the diverse isoprenoid constituents of plant products may explain, in part, the impact of fruit, vegetable and grain consumption on cancer risk. (+info)
Identification and characterization of a mammalian enzyme catalyzing the asymmetric oxidative cleavage of provitamin A.
In vertebrates, symmetric versus asymmetric cleavage of beta-carotene in the biosynthesis of vitamin A and its derivatives has been controversially discussed. Recently we have been able to identify a cDNA encoding a metazoan beta,beta-carotene-15,15'-dioxygenase from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. This enzyme catalyzes the key step in vitamin A biosynthesis, symmetrically cleaving beta-carotene to give two molecules of retinal. Mutations in the corresponding gene are known to lead to a blind, vitamin A-deficient phenotype. Orthologs of this enzyme have very recently been found also in vertebrates and molecularly characterized. Here we report the identification of a cDNA from mouse encoding a second type of carotene dioxygenase catalyzing exclusively the asymmetric oxidative cleavage of beta-carotene at the 9',10' double bond of beta-carotene and resulting in the formation of beta-apo-10'-carotenal and beta-ionone, a substance known as a floral scent from roses, for example. Besides beta-carotene, lycopene is also oxidatively cleaved by the enzyme. The deduced amino acid sequence shares significant sequence identity with the beta,beta-carotene-15,15'-dioxygenases, and the two enzyme types have several conserved motifs. To establish its occurrence in different vertebrates, we then attempted and succeeded in cloning cDNAs encoding this new type of carotene dioxygenase from human and zebrafish as well. As regards their possible role, the apocarotenals formed by this enzyme may be the precursors for the biosynthesis of retinoic acid or exert unknown physiological effects. Thus, in contrast to Drosophila, in vertebrates both symmetric and asymmetric cleavage pathways exist for carotenes, revealing a greater complexity of carotene metabolism. (+info)
Beta-carotene cleavage products induce oxidative stress in vitro by impairing mitochondrial respiration.
Carotenoids are widely used as important micronutrients in food. Furthermore, carotenoid supplementation has been used in the treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress. However, in some clinical studies harmful effects have been observed, for example, a higher incidence of lung cancer in individuals exposed to extraordinary oxidative stress. The causal mechanisms are still unclear. Carotenoid cleavage products (CCPs), including highly reactive aldehydes and epoxides, are formed during oxidative attacks in the course of antioxidative action. Here, we tested the hypothesis that CCPs may increase oxidative stress by impairing mitochondrial function. We found that CCPs strongly inhibit state 3 respiration of isolated rat liver mitochondria even at concentrations between 0.5 and 20 microM. This was true for retinal, beta-ionone, and mixtures of cleavage products, which were generated in the presence of hypochlorite to mimic their formation in inflammatory regions. The inhibition of mitochondrial respiration was accompanied by a reduction in protein sulfhydryl content, decreasing glutathione levels and redox state, and elevated accumulation of malondialdehyde. Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential favor functional deterioration of the adenine nucleotide translocator. The findings may reflect a basic mechanism of increasing the risk of cancer induced by CCPs. (+info)
New megastigmane glycoside and aromadendrane derivative from the aerial part of Piper elongatum.
A new megastigmane glycoside, called pipeloside A, and a new aromadendrane type sesquiterpenoid, pipelol A, were isolated from the MeOH extract of the aerial part of Piper elongatum VAHL. along with a known megastigmane glycoside, byzantionoside B. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. (+info)
Identification of (3S, 9R)- and (3S, 9S)-megastigma-6,7-dien-3,5,9-triol 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranosides as damascenone progenitors in the flowers of Rosa damascena Mill.
The progenitors of damascenone (1), the most intensive C13-norisoprenoid volatile aroma constituent of rose essential oil, were surveyed in the flowers of Rosa damascena Mill. Besides 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3-hydroxy-7,8-didehydro-beta-ionol (4b), a stable progenitor already isolated from the residual water after steam distillation of flowers of R. damascena Mill., two labile progenitors were identified to be (3S, 9R)- and (3S, 9S)-megastigma-6,7-dien-3,5,9-triol 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranosides (2b) based on their synthesis and HPLC-MS analytical data. Compound 2b gave damascenone (1), 3-hydroxy-beta-damascone (3) and 4b upon heating under acidic conditions. (+info)
Glochidionionosides A-D: megastigmane glucosides from leaves of Glochidion zeylanicum (Gaertn.) A. Juss.
Five megastigmane glucosides were isolated from the leaves of Glochidion zeylanicum. One of them was a known compound, blumenol C O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), and the structures of the four new compounds, glochidionionosides A-D (2-5), were mainly elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including a modified Mosher's method. The absolute configurations of the six-membered ring of glochidionionoside D (5) were deduced by beta-D-glucopyranosylation-induced shift trends in the (13)C-NMR spectra and confirmed by X-ray analysis as its p-bromobenzoate (5b), and the axis chirality of C-7 was determined to be R. (+info)
Expression of CYP2A3 mRNA and its regulation by 3-methylcholanthrene, pyrazole, and beta-ionone in rat tissues.
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A enzymes are involved in the metabolism of numerous drugs and hormones and activate different carcinogens. Human CYP2A6, mouse CYP2A5 and rat CYP2A3 are orthologous enzymes that present high similarity in their amino acid sequence and share substrate specificities. However, different from the human and mouse enzyme, CYP2A3 is not expressed in the rat liver. There are limited data about expression of CYP2A3 in extrahepatic tissues and its regulation by typical CYP inducers. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to analyze CYP2A3 mRNA expression in different rat tissues by RT-PCR, and to study the influence of 3-methylcholanthrene, pyrazole and -ionone treatment on its expression. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 5 rats each, and were treated ip for 4 days with 3-methylcholanthrene (25 mg/kg body weight), pyrazole (150 mg/kg body weight), -ionone (1 g/kg body weight), or vehicle. Total RNA was extracted from tissues and CYP2A3 mRNA levels were analyzed by semiquantitative RT-PCR. CYP2A3 mRNA was constitutively expressed in the esophagus, lung and nasal epithelium, but not along the intestine, liver, or kidney. CYP2A3 mRNA levels were increased in the esophagus by treatment with 3-methylcholanthrene and pyrazole (17- and 7-fold, respectively), in lung by pyrazole and -ionone (3- and 4-fold, respectively, although not statistically significant), in the distal part of the intestine and kidney by 3-methylcholanthrene and pyrazole, and in the proximal part of the intestine by pyrazole. CYP2A3 mRNA was not induced in nasal epithelium, liver or in the middle part of the intestine. These data show that, in the rat, CYP2A3 is constitutively expressed in several extrahepatic tissues and its regulation occurs through a complex mechanism that is essentially tissue specific. (+info)