Anticarcinogenic activities of sulforaphane and structurally related synthetic norbornyl isothiocyanates. (65/72)

Sulforaphane [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methyl-sulfinyl)butane] was recently isolated from one variety of broccoli as the major and very potent inducer of phase 2 detoxication enzymes in murine hepatoma cells in culture. Since phase 2 enzyme induction is often associated with reduced susceptibility of animals and their cells to the toxic and neoplastic effects of carcinogens and other electrophiles, it was important to establish whether sulforaphane could block chemical carcinogenesis. In this paper we report that sulforaphane and three synthetic analogues, designed as potent phase 2 enzyme inducers, block the formation of mammary tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats treated with single doses of 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene. The analogues are exo-2-acetyl-exo-6-isothiocyanatonorbornane, endo-2-acetyl-exo-6-isothiocyanatonorbornane, and exo-2-acetyl-exo-5-isothiocyanatonorbornane. When sulforaphane and exo-2-acetyl-exo-6-isothiocyanatonorbornane were administered by gavage (75 or 150 mumol per day for 5 days) around the time of exposure to the carcinogen, the incidence, multiplicity, and weight of mammary tumors were significantly reduced, and their development was delayed. The analogues endo-2-acetyl-exo-6-isothiocyanatonorbornane and exo-2-acetyl-exo-5-isothiocyanatonorbornane were less potent protectors. Thus, a class of functionalized isothiocyanates with anticarcinogenic properties has been identified. These results validate the thesis that inducers of phase 2 enzymes in cultured cells are likely to protect against carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Controlling the regiospecificity and coupling of cytochrome P450cam: T185F mutant increases coupling and abolishes 3-hydroxynorcamphor product. (66/72)

Cytochrome P450cam (P450CIA1) catalyzes the hydroxylation of camphor and several substrate analogues such as norcamphor and 1-methyl-norcamphor. Hydroxylation was found experimentally at the 3, 5, and 6 positions of norcamphor, but only at the 5 and 6 positions of 1-methyl-norcamphor. In the catalytic cycle, the hydroxylation of substrate is coupled to the consumption of NADH. For camphor, the degree of coupling is 100%, but for both norcamphor and 1-methyl-norcamphor, the efficiency is dramatically lowered to 12% and 50%, respectively. Based on an examination of the active site of P450cam, it appeared that mutating position 185 might dramatically alter the product specificity and coupling of hydroxylation of norcamphor by P450cam. Analysis of molecular dynamics trajectories of norcamphor bound to the T185F mutant of cytochrome P450cam predicted that hydroxylation at the 3 position should be abolished and that the coupling should be dramatically increased. This mutant was constructed and the product profile and coupling experimentally determined. The coupling was doubled, and hydroxylation at the 3 position was essentially abolished. Both of these results are in agreement with the prediction.  (+info)

Selective attenuation by N-0861 (N6-endonorboran-2-yl-9-methyladenine) of cardiac A1 adenosine receptor-mediated effects in humans. (67/72)

BACKGROUND: To determine the adenosine receptor subtype selectivity of the novel antagonist N-0861, the A1 and A2 receptor-mediated cardiac effects of adenosine were investigated in 13 patients during continuous intravenous infusion and boluses of adenosine before and after intravenous infusion of N-0861. METHODS AND RESULTS: Measurements of the the atria-to-His (A-H) interval, chest pain severity, and coronary blood flow velocity were made before and after low-dose (69 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) intravenous infusion and bolus (2.5 mg) adenosine. Two doses of N-0861 were infused intravenously, and the adenosine protocol was repeated. N-0861 0.25 mg/kg abolished the negative dromotropic effect (A-H interval prolongation) and chest discomfort experienced during infusion of adenosine and attenuated discomfort observed during the boluses of adenosine; however, the increase in coronary blood flow velocity was not significantly affected. CONCLUSIONS: These actions of N-0861 support the concept that the negative dromotropic effect and anginalike pain caused by adenosine are A1 adenosine receptor-mediated, whereas the increase in coronary blood flow velocity is due to activation of A2 adenosine receptors. N-0861 appears to be an effective and selective A1 adenosine receptor antagonist in humans.  (+info)

Vasorelaxant properties of norbormide, a selective vasoconstrictor agent for the rat microvasculature. (68/72)

1. The effects of norbormide on the contractility of endothelium-deprived rat, guinea-pig, mouse, and human artery rings, and of freshly isolated smooth muscle cells of rat caudal artery were investigated. In addition, the effect of norbormide on intracellular calcium levels of A7r5 cells was evaluated. 2. In resting rat mesenteric, renal, and caudal arteries, norbormide (0.5-50 microM) induced a concentration-dependent contractile effect. In rat caudal artery, the contraction was very slowly reversible on washing, completely abolished in the absence of extracellular calcium, and antagonized by high concentrations (10-800 microM) of verapamil. The norbormide effect persisted upon removal of either extracellular Na+ or K+. The contractile effect of norbormide was observed also in single, freshly isolated smooth muscle cells from rat caudal artery. 3. In resting rat and guinea-pig aortae, guinea-pig mesenteric artery, mouse caudal artery, and human subcutaneous resistance arteries, norbormide did not induce contraction. When these vessels were contracted by 80 mM KCl, norbormide (10-100 microM) caused relaxation. Norbormide inhibited the response to Ca2+ of rat aorta incubated in 80 mM KCl/Ca2(+)-free medium. Norbormide (up to 100 microM) was ineffective in phenylephrine-contracted guinea-pig and rat aorta. 4. In A7r5 cells, a cell line from rat aorta, norbormide prevented high K(+)- but not 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced intracellular calcium transients. 5. These findings indicate that in vitro, norbormide induces a myogenic contraction, selective for the rat small vessels, by promoting calcium entry in smooth muscle cells, presumably through calcium channels. In rat aorta and arteries from other mammals, norbormide behaves like a calcium channel entry blocker.  (+info)

Calcium-antagonist effects of norbormide on isolated perfused heart and cardiac myocytes of guinea-pig: a comparison with verapamil. (69/72)

1. Cardiac effects on norbormide and verapamil were compared in single ventricular myocytes, right atria, and Langendorff perfused hearts isolated from guinea-pigs. 2. In ventricular myocytes, norbormide 50 microM inhibited the peak calcium current (ICa) by 49.6 +/- 3.9% without altering the shape of the current-voltage relationship; verapamil 1 microM inhibited ICa by 83.2 +/- 3.3%. Neither norbormide nor verapamil affected ICa at the first beat after a 3 min quiescence period; during repeated depolarizations, both drugs cumulatively blocked ICa (use-dependence), with time constants of 23.0 +/- 7.0 s for norbormide and 91.3 +/- 8.4 s for verapamil. 3. In constant-flow perfused hearts electrically driven at 2.5 Hz or 3.3 Hz, both norbormide and verapamil concentration-dependently decreased ventricular contractility (dP/dtmax), atrio-ventricular (AV) conduction velocity and coronary pressure. Intraventricular conduction velocity was slightly decreased by norbormide but not by verapamil. At an equivalent change in AV conduction, norbormide depressed heart contractility less than verapamil. The effects of norbormide on AV conduction, intraventricular conduction, and contractility were frequency-dependent. Furthermore, the curves correlating the mechanical and electrical effects of norbormide at the two frequencies used were apparently coincident, while those of verapamil were clearly separated. 4. In spontaneously beating right atria, norbormide and verapamil decreased the frequency of sinus node (SA) in a concentration-dependent way. At an equivalent effect on the AV conduction, norbormide exerted a greater effect on sinus frequency than verapamil. 5. These results indicate that in guinea-pig heart norbormide has the pharmacological profile of a Ca-antagonist with strong electrophysiological properties. In comparison with verapamil, norbormide is more selective on SA and AV node tissues and exerts a weaker negative inotropic effect on ventricles. In principle, this pattern of effects may be an advantage in treating supraventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with heart failure. The effect of norbormide on intraventricular conduction may represent an additional antiarrhythmic mechanism.  (+info)

Ischemic preconditioning prevents the impairment of hypoxic coronary vasodilatation caused by ischemia/reperfusion: role of adenosine A1/A3 and bradykinin B2 receptor activation. (70/72)

We previously reported that hypoxic coronary vasodilatation (HCVD) is initiated by endothelial NO and sustained by adenosine. Prolonged ischemia/reperfusion impairs endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilatation, whereas transient ischemia (ie, preconditioning) protects the myocardium from subsequent ischemic events. Accordingly, we assessed whether prolonged ischemia/reperfusion impairs HCVD and whether preconditioning prevents this dysfunction. HCVD, elicited in isolated guinea pig hearts by a 1-minute exposure to 100% N2, consisted of an approximately 70% increase in coronary flow associated with enhanced nitrite/nitrate and adenosine overflow (+40% and 5-fold, respectively). After 30-minute global ischemia and 20-minute reperfusion, HCVD was decreased by approximately 60%, and the increases in nitrite/nitrate and adenosine overflow were abolished. Preconditioning (ie, three cycles of 5-minute global ischemia+5-minute reperfusion) prevented the impairment of HCVD and fully restored the increase in nitrite/nitrate overflow, but not that of adenosine. The protective effect of preconditioning was mimicked by perfusion with the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine and prevented by the A1 receptor antagonist N-0861. In addition, the A3 receptor agonist N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyl-carboxamide had a similar protective effect. The bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist HOE 140 abolished the protective effect of preconditioning, whereas the NO synthase inhibitor N(omega)-methyl-L-arginine and the cycloxygenase inhibitor indomethacin did not. Our data indicate that preconditioning restores HCVD by a process that is triggered by activation of adenosine A1/A3 and bradykinin B2 receptors. The action of bradykinin is independent of NO and prostacyclin production. Once restored by preconditioning, HCVD is mediated by NO but no longer sustained by adenosine.  (+info)

Canine mast cell adenosine receptors: cloning and expression of the A3 receptor and evidence that degranulation is mediated by the A2B receptor. (71/72)

We cloned and characterized the canine A3 adenosine receptor (AR) and examined AR-induced degranulation of the BR line of canine mastocytoma cells. Canine A3AR transcript is found predominantly in spleen, lung, liver, and testes and encodes a 314-amino acid heptahelical receptor. 125I-N6-Aminobenzyladenosine binds to two affinity states of canine A3AR with KD values of 0.7 +/- 0.1 and 16 +/- 0.8 nM, reflecting G protein-coupled and -uncoupled receptors, respectively. Xanthine antagonists bind with similar affinities to human, canine, and rabbit receptors but with 80-400-fold lower affinities to rat A3AR. Although canine BR mastocytoma cells contain A1AR, A2BAR, and A3AR, degranulation seems to be mediated primarily by A2BARs stimulated by the nonselective agonist 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) but not by the A3-selective agonist N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methylcarboxamide. NECA-stimulated degranulation is not prevented by pertussis toxin and is blocked by enprofylline (Ki = 7 microM), an antiasthmatic xanthine with low affinity (Ki > 100 microM) for A1AR, A2AAR, and A3AR. NECA increases canine mastocytoma cell cAMP, Ca2+, and inositol trisphosphate levels; these responses are antagonized half-maximally by 7-15 microM enprofylline. The results suggest that (i) the cloned canine A3AR is structurally and pharmacologically more similar to human than to rat A3AR; (ii) the A2BAR, and not the A1AR or A3AR, is principally responsible for adenosine-mediated degranulation of canine BR mastocytoma cells; and (iii) the BR cell A2BAR couples to both Ca2+ mobilization and cAMP accumulation. Although A2B receptors play a major role in the regulation of BR mast cell degranulation, multiple AR subtypes and G proteins may influence mast cell functions.  (+info)

Inosine binds to A3 adenosine receptors and stimulates mast cell degranulation. (72/72)

We investigated the mechanism by which inosine, a metabolite of adenosine that accumulates to > 1 mM levels in ischemic tissues, triggers mast cell degranulation. Inosine was found to do the following: (a) compete for [125I]N6-aminobenzyladenosine binding to recombinant rat A3 adenosine receptors (A3AR) with an IC50 of 25+/-6 microM; (b) not bind to A1 or A2A ARs; (c) bind to newly identified A3ARs in guinea pig lung (IC50 = 15+/-4 microM); (d) lower cyclic AMP in HEK-293 cells expressing rat A3ARs (ED50 = 12+/-5 microM); (e) stimulate RBL-2H3 rat mast-like cell degranulation (ED50 = 2.3+/-0.9 microM); and (f) cause mast cell-dependent constriction of hamster cheek pouch arterioles that is attenuated by A3AR blockade. Inosine differs from adenosine in not activating A2AARs that dilate vascular smooth muscle and inhibit mast cell degranulation. The A3 selectivity of inosine may explain why it elicits a monophasic arteriolar constrictor response distinct from the multiphasic dilator/constrictor response to adenosine. Nucleoside accumulation and an increase in the ratio of inosine to adenosine may provide a physiologic stimulus for mast cell degranulation in ischemic or inflamed tissues.  (+info)