Theoretical study of the product specificity in the hydroxylation of camphor, norcamphor, 5,5-difluorocamphor, and pericyclocamphanone by cytochrome P-450cam. (57/72)

The hydroxylations of d-camphor, norcamphor, pericyclocamphanone, and 5,5-difluorocamphor by cytochrome P-450cam have been examined using theoretical methods to identify and characterize properties which determine product specificity. Experimental results indicate that each molecule is hydroxylated with quite different regio-specificity when metabolized by P-450cam. This result is surprising in view of their overall structural similiarity. Herein we report the results of calculations on d-camphor and three of its analogues which suggest that all of these molecules should, when metabolized by P-450cam, form hydroxylation products and predict the product distribution for each. Our conclusions are based on two fundamental criteria which are consistent with a generally accepted radical mechanism in determining product specificity in these molecules: 1) relative heats of formation of the radicals formed by abstracting a hydrogen, and 2) orientation of the substrate molecule with respect to the putative active oxygen species bound to iron. Our results explain the experimental observations for camphor and 5,5-difluorocamphor but disagree with original published results for norcamphor and pericyclocamphanone. In light of our results, new experiments have been performed for norcamphor and the original data reexamined for pericyclocamphanone. Our predictions have recently been experimentally confirmed for norcamphor, and unpublished data (Dr. S. Sligar) suggest that the same is true for pericyclocamphanone.  (+info)

Occupational asthma caused by himic anhydride. (58/72)

Acid anhydride compounds are reactive chemicals that have been previously associated with immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated occupational asthma. Twenty workers with exposure to himic anhydride powder used for the manufacture of a synthetic flame retardant were questioned about respiratory symptoms. The study was initiated after one individual from the plant developed asthma. A test for serum-specific IgE to human serum albumin conjugates of himic anhydride, phthalic anhydride, hexahydrophthalic anhydride and trimellitic anhydride was performed for seven workers with respiratory symptoms associated with himic anhydride exposure. Three of the seven symptomatic workers who reported wheezing at work exhibited elevated specific IgE to two or more acid anhydride-human serum albumin conjugates. Radioallergosorbent inhibition studies performed with sera containing high levels of himic anhydride-human serum albumin specific IgE from a symptomatic worker demonstrated cross-allergenicity between himic anhydride-human serum albumin and hexahydrophthalic anhydride-human serum albumin allergenic determinants. This study demonstrated that himic anhydride can elicit IgE-mediated sensitization in the workplace.  (+info)

Biosynthesis of monoterpenes. Enantioselectivity in the enzymatic cyclization of linalyl pyrophosphate to (-)-endo-fenchol. (59/72)

The conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate to (-)-endo-fenchol is considered to proceed by the initial isomerization of the substrate to (-)-(3R)-linalyl pyrophosphate and the subsequent cyclization of this bound intermediate. To test this stereochemical scheme, phosphatase-free preparations of (-)-endo-fenchol cyclase from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare M.) fruit were repeatedly incubated with a sample of (3RS)-[1-3H2]linalyl pyrophosphate until approximately 50% of this precursor was converted to the bicyclic monoterpenol end product. The residual linalyl pyrophosphate was isolated and enzymatically hydrolyzed to the free alcohol, linalool, which was resolved by chiral phase capillary gas-liquid chromatography of the derived threo and erythro mixture of 1,2-epoxides. The predominance of the (3S)-enantiomer in the residual substrate indicated that the (3R)-enantiomer was preferred for the cyclization to (-)-(1S)-endo-fenchol. This conclusion was subsequently confirmed by the preparation and direct testing of (3R)-1Z-[1-3H] linalyl pyrophosphate, which afforded a Km value lower than that observed for geranyl pyrophosphate and a relative velocity nearly three times higher. (3S)-1Z-[1-3H]Linalyl pyrophosphate was not an effective substrate for (-)-endo-fenchol biosynthesis but did, by an anomalous cyclization, give rise to low levels of the enantiomeric (+)-(1R)-endo-fenchol as well as to other products. These results support the proposed stereochemical model and also suggest that the isomerization step is rate limiting in the coupled isomerization-cyclization of geranyl pyrophosphate to (-)-endo-fenchol.  (+info)

A critical review of currently used single-dose rodenticides. (60/72)

The introduction of the anticoagulants in the early 1950s, with their much greater safety to nontarget animals, resulted in a general decline in the use of single-dose rodenticides. However, the appearance of rodent resistance to the anticoagulants, first in the United Kingdom, later elsewhere in Europe, and still more recently in the USA, has revived interest in the use of single-dose rodenticides. Unfortunately, owing to their danger to nontarget mammals, the use of several of these compounds must be restricted; others, despite their long use, are now recognized to be unsatisfactory because of their poor acceptance or reacceptance by rats and mice. Thus, only very few compounds of this type are available for unrestricted use and there is an urgent need for the development of effective alternatives.  (+info)

Adenosine modulates N-methyl-D-aspartate-stimulated hippocampal nitric oxide production in vivo. (61/72)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Adenosine acts presynaptically to inhibit release of excitatory amino acids (EAAs) and is thus considered to be neuroprotective. Because EAA-stimulated synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) may play an important role in long-term potentiation and excitotoxic-mediated injury, we tested the hypotheses that adenosine agonists attenuate basal and EAA-induced NO production in the hippocampus in vivo and that adenosine A1 receptors mediate this response. METHODS: Microdialysis probes were placed bilaterally into the CA3 region of the hippocampus of adult Sprague-Dawley rats under pentobarbital anesthesia. Probes were perfused for 5 hours with artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing 3 mumol/L [14C]L-arginine. Recovery of [14C]L-citrulline in the effluent was used as a marker of NO production. In 10 groups of rats, time-dependent increases in [14C]L-citrulline recovery were compared between right- and left-sided probes perfused with various combinations of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), adenosine agonists, adenosine antagonists, and the NO synthase inhibitor N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). RESULTS: Recovery of [14C]L-citrulline during perfusion with artificial cerebrospinal fluid progressively increased to 141 +/- 27 fmol/min (+/- SEM) over 5 hours. Contralateral perfusion with 1 mmol/L NMDA augmented [14C]L-citrulline recovery to 317 +/- 62 fmol/min. Perfusion of 1 mmol/L L-NAME with NMDA inhibited [14C]L-citrulline recovery compared with NMDA alone. Perfusion with 0.1 mmol/L 2-chloroadenosine attenuated basal as well as NMDA-enhanced [14C]L-citrulline recovery. This action of 2-chloroadenosine was reversed by infusion of 0.1 mmol/L 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, a specific A1 receptor antagonist. Infusion of 0.1 mmol/L (2S)-N6-[2-endo-norboryl]adenosine, a specific A1 receptor agonist, also attenuated the 0.1 mmol/L and 1 mmol/L NMDA-enhanced [14C]L-citrulline recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Using an indirect method of assessing NO production in vivo, these data are consistent with in vitro results showing that NMDA receptor stimulation enhances NO production. Furthermore, we conclude that stimulation of A1 receptors can attenuate the basal as well as NMDA-induced production of NO. Because NMDA receptor stimulation amplifies glutamate release, our data are consistent with presynaptic A1 receptor-mediated inhibition of EAA release and consequent downregulation of NO production.  (+info)

Effect of N-0861, a selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, on pharmacologic stress imaging with adenosine. (62/72)

N6-endonorboman-2-yl-9-methyladenine (N-0861) is a drug which inhibits the A1 adenosine receptor subtype. One proposed use for N-0861 is to eliminate A1 receptor-mediated side effects such as A-V heart block and possibly angina in patients undergoing pharmacologic stress with adenosine. The goal of this study was to determine whether N-0861 has any crossover effect on the A2 vasodilatory action of adenosine or on 201TI uptake which would adversely affect imaging of coronary stenoses. METHODS: In eight dogs with critical left anterior descending (LAD) stenoses, we compared the hemodynamic response to intravenous adenosine (250 micrograms/kg/min) before and after N-0861 administration. LAD and left circumflex (LCx) coronary flows were measured ultrasonically and regional blood flow was assessed using microspheres. Thallium-201 (18.5-37.0 MBq) was injected during adenosine hyperemia while N-0861 was present. Imaging of heart slices was performed and defect magnitude was calculated as LAD:LCx count ratios from regions of interest (ROIs) on images. Regional 201Tl activity and microsphere flow were determined by gamma well counting. RESULTS: There was no change in mean heart rate, arterial and left atrial pressures, +dP/dt, and ultrasonically measured LAD and LCx coronary flows upon N-0861 administration. In addition, adenosine evoked a similar hemodynamic response after N-0861. There was also no change in coronary flow in the critically stenotic LAD but LCx flow tripled to 106 +/- 14 ml/min (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: These data indicate that N-0861 pretreatment does not adversely affect adenosine A2 receptor-mediated vasodilation and has no effect on the detection of a critical coronary stenosis by 201Tl imaging. Thus, the pretreatment strategy may prove useful for the elimination of A1 receptor-mediated side effects during pharmacologic stress imaging with adenosine.  (+info)

Stereoselective hydroxylation of norcamphor by cytochrome P450cam. Experimental verification of molecular dynamics simulations. (63/72)

The stereoselectivity of cytochrome P450cam hydroxylation has been investigated with the enantiomerically pure substrate analog norcamphor. (1R)- and (1S)-norcamphor (> 92 enantiomeric excess) were characterized in the hydroxylation reaction with cytochrome P450cam with respect to the product profile, steady state kinetics, coupling efficiency, and free energy of substrate dissociation. The experimental results demonstrate regiospecificity that is enantiomer-specific and confirm our previously reported prediction that (1R)-norcamphor is hydroxylated preferentially at the 5-carbon and (1S)-norcamphor at the 6-carbon (Bass, M. B., and Ornstein, R. L. (1993) J. Comput. Chem. 14, 541-548); these simulation results are now compared with simulations involving a ferryl oxygen intermediate. Hydroxylation of (1R)-norcamphor was found at the 5-, 6-, and 3-carbons in a ratio of 65:30:5 (respectively), whereas (1S)-norcamphor was oxidized to produce a 28:62:10 ratio of the same products. With the exception of the regiospecificity, all of the reaction and physical parameters are similar for each enantiomer of norcamphor. These results show that the position of the carbonyl group on the hydrocarbon skeleton of norcamphor plays a role in determining the average orientation of this substrate in the active site and suggests that hydrogen bonding interactions can aid in directing the regiospecificity and stereospecificity of the hydroxylation reaction catalyzed by cytochrome P450cam.  (+info)

Susceptibility to adenosine agonists of giant migrating contraction induced by glycerol enema in anesthetized rats. (64/72)

The present study examined whether adenosine agonists influence the occurrence of giant migrating contractions (GMCs) induced by glycerol enema (65%, 2 ml/kg) in rats. Catheter pressure transducers were used to measure the colonic luminal manometric alterations. The adenosine A1 agonists (2S)-N6-(2-endo-norbornyl)adenosine ((S)-ENBA) (10 micrograms/kg, i.v.) and N6-cyclohexyladenosine (30 micrograms/kg, i.v.) abolished the GMCs, whereas the adenosine A2 agonist 2-[p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosin e (CGS 21680) (30-300 micrograms/kg, i.v.) failed to influence the GMCs. The suppressive action of (S)-ENBA on the GMCs was entirely counteracted by the peripheral adenosine antagonist 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline (10 mg/kg, i.v.). The present observations suggest that the adenosine A1 agonist suppresses the GMCs via peripheral adenosine receptors.  (+info)