Comparison of the effects of the GABAB receptor positive modulator BHF177 and the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen on anxiety-like behavior, learning, and memory in mice. (49/72)


Synthetically tractable click hydrogels for three-dimensional cell culture formed using tetrazine-norbornene chemistry. (50/72)


Biotransformation of (+)-fenchone by Salmonella typhimurium OY1002/2A6 expressing human CYP2A6 and NADPH-P450 reductase. (51/72)

In this study, biotransformation of (+)-fenchone (compound 1) by Salmonella typhimurium OY1002/2A6 expressing human CYP2A6 and NADPH-P450 reductase yielded two oxidized metabolites, namely, (+)-(1S,6R)-6-endo-hydroxyfenchone (compound 2) and (+)-(1S,6S)-6-exo-hydroxyfenchone (compound 3). The conversion rate of compound 1 to compound 2 and 3 was 2.4% and 5.2%, respectively. This is the first study that succeeded in metabolizing compound 1 to obtain large amounts of metabolite 2 and 3 by using S. typhimurium OY1002/2A6 expressing human CYP2A6 and NADPH-P450 reductase.  (+info)

The influence of matrix degradation and functionality on cell survival and morphogenesis in PEG-based hydrogels. (52/72)


Distillation time modifies essential oil yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill). (53/72)

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an essential oil crop grown worldwide for production of essential oil, as medicinal or as culinary herb. The essential oil is extracted via steam distillation either from the whole aboveground biomass (herb) or from fennel fruits (seed). The hypothesis of this study was that distillation time (DT) can modify fennel oil yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of the oil. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of eight DT (1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 min) on fennel herb essential oil. Fennel essential oil yield (content) reached a maximum of 0.68% at 160 min DT. The concentration of trans-anethole (32.6-59.4% range in the oil) was low at 1.25 min DT, and increased with an increase of the DT. Alpha-phelandrene (0.9-10.5% range) was the lowest at 1.25 min DT and higher at 10, 80, and 160 min DT. Alpha-pinene (7.1-12.4% range) and beta-pinene (0.95-1.64% range) were higher in the shortest DT and the lowest at 80 min DT. Myrcene (0.93-1.95% range), delta-3-carene (2.1-3.7% range), cis-ocimene (0-0.23% range), and gamma-terpinene (0.22-2.67% range) were the lowest at 1.25 min DT and the highest at 160 min DT. In contrast, the concentrations of paracymene (0.68-5.97% range), fenchone (9.8-22.7% range), camphor (0.21-0.51% range), and cis-anethole (0.14-4.66% range) were highest at shorter DT (1.25-5 min DT) and the lowest at the longer DT (80-160 min DT). Fennel oils from the 20 and 160 min DT had higher antioxidant capacity than the fennel oil obtained at 1.25 min DT. DT can be used to obtain fennel essential oil with differential composition. DT must be reported when reporting essential oil content and composition of fennel essential oil. The results from this study may be used to compare reports in which different DT to extract essential oil from fennel biomass were used.  (+info)

Lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.) essential oils attenuate hyperglycemia and protect against oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. (54/72)


Amphetamine, mazindol, and fencamfamin in narcolepsy. (55/72)

Twenty patients with the narcoleptic syndrome were treated separately with dexamphetamine sulphate tablets 10 and 30 mg, Dexedrine Spansules 10 mg, mazindol 4 mg, and fencamfamin hydrochloride 60 mg daily. Each drug was given for four weeks and the effects compared. In these dosages the reported frequency of attacks of narcolepsy was roughly halved with each treatment, dexamphetamine 30 mg daily being only slightly more potent than 10 mg. The subjective effects of Dexedrine tablets and Spansules could not be distinguished by most patients. Effects on mood, alertness, and sympathomimetic side effects were largely inseparable with all these drugs, but a decrease in appetite was not reported by patients with narcolepsy.  (+info)

Biosynthesis of monoterpenes. Stereochemistry of the enzymatic cyclization of geranyl pyrophosphate to (-)-endo-fenchol. (56/72)

The conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate to (-)-endo-fenchol is considered to proceed by the initial isomerization of the substrate to (-)-(3R)-linalyl pyrophosphate and the subsequent cyclization of this bound intermediate. Incubation of (1R)-[2-14C,1-3H]- and (1S)-[2-14C,1-3H]geranyl pyrophosphate with a preparation of (-)-endo-fenchol cyclase (synthase) from common fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) gave labeled product of unchanged 3H:14C ratio in both cases, and each was dehydrated to a mixture of alpha- and beta-fenchene which were oxidized to the corresponding alpha- and beta-fenchocamphorones, again without change in isotope ratio. The location of the tritium label was deduced in each case by stereoselective, base-catalyzed exchange of the exo-alpha-hydrogen of the derived ketone. The findings indicated that the configuration at C1 of the substrate was retained in the enzymatic transformation to (-)-endo-fenchol which is entirely consistent with the syn-isomerization of geranyl pyrophosphate to (3R)-linalyl pyrophosphate and cyclization of the latter via the anti-endo-conformer. These absolute stereochemical elements of the reaction sequence were confirmed by the enzymatic conversion of (3R)-1Z-[1-3H]linalyl pyrophosphate to (-)-endo-fenchol and by the location of the tritium in the derived fenchocamphorones as before. The summation of the results fully defines the overall stereochemistry of the coupled isomerization and cyclization of geranyl pyrophosphate to (-)-endo-fenchol.  (+info)