Assessing the molecular basis for rat-selective induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition by norbormide. (17/72)

It was recently demonstrated that the rat-selective toxicant norbormide also induces rat-selective opening of the permeability transition pore (PTP) in isolated mitochondria. Norbormide is a mixture of endo and exo stereoisomers; however, only the endo forms are lethal to rats. In the present study we tested both endo and exo isomers as well as neutral and cationic derivatives of norbormide to: (i) verify if the PTP-regulatory activity by norbormide is stereospecific; (ii) define the structural features of norbormide responsible for PTP-activation, (iii) elucidate the basis for the drug species-specificity. Our results show that: (i) norbormide isomers affect PTP in a rat-selective fashion; however, no relevant differences between lethal and non-lethal forms are observed suggesting that drug regulation of PTP-activity and lethality in rats are unrelated phenomena; (ii) a (phenylvinyl)pyridine moiety represents the key element conferring the PTP-activating effect; (iii) cationic derivatives of rat-active compounds accumulate in the matrix via the membrane potential and activate the PTP also in mouse and guinea pig mitochondria. These findings suggest that the norbormide-sensitive PTP-target is present in all species examined, and is presumably located on the matrix side. The species-selectivity may depend on the unique properties of a transport system allowing drug internalisation in rat mitochondria.  (+info)

Release of sunflower seed dormancy by cyanide: cross-talk with ethylene signalling pathway. (18/72)

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Antimicrobial polymers prepared by ROMP with unprecedented selectivity: a molecular construction kit approach. (19/72)

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Electron probe X-ray microanalysis of intact pathway for human aqueous humor outflow. (20/72)

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Diastereochemical differentiation of some cyclic and bicyclic beta-amino acids, via the kinetic method. (21/72)

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Specific inhibition of kynurenate synthesis enhances extracellular dopamine levels in the rodent striatum. (22/72)

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Oxidation of deuterated compounds by high specific activity methane monooxygenase from Methylosinus trichosporium. Mechanistic implications. (23/72)

Hydrocarbon oxidations catalyzed by methane monooxygenase purified to high specific activity from the type II methanotroph Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b were compared to the same reactions catalyzed by methane monooxygenase from the type I methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus Bath and liver microsomal cytochrome P-450. The two methane monooxygenases produced nearly identical product distributions, in accord with physical studies of the enzymes which have shown them to be very similar. The products obtained from the oxidation of a series of deuterated substrates by the M. trichosporium methane monooxygenase were very similar to those reported for the same reaction catalyzed by liver microsomal cytochrome P-450, suggesting that the enzymes use similar mechanisms. However, differences in the product distributions and other aspects of the reactions indicated the mechanisms are not identical. Methane monooxygenase epoxidized propene in D2O and d6-propene in H2O without exchange of substrate protons or deuterons with solvent, in contrast to cytochrome P-450 (Groves, J. T., Avaria-Neisser, G. E., Fish, K. M., Imachi, M., and Kuczkowski, R. L. (1986) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 108, 3837-3838), suggesting that the mechanism of epoxidation of olefins by methane monooxygenase differs at least in part from that of cytochrome P-450. Hydroxylation of alkanes by methane monooxygenase revealed close similarities to hydroxylations by cytochrome P-450. Allylic hydroxylation of 3,3,6,6-d4-cyclohexene occurred with approximately 20% allylic rearrangement in the case of methane monooxygenase, whereas 33% was reported for this reaction catalyzed by cytochrome P-450 (Groves, J. T., and Subramanian, D. V. (1984) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 106, 2177-2181). Similarly, hydroxylation of exo,exo,exo,exo-2,3,5,6-d4-norbornane by methane monooxygenase occurred with epimerization, but to a lesser extent than reported for cytochrome P-450 (Groves, J. T., McClusky, G. A., White, R. E., and Coon, M. J. (1978) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 81, 154-160). A large intramolecular isotope effect, kH,exo/kD,exo greater than or equal to 5.5, was calculated for this reaction. However, the intermolecular kinetic isotope effect on Vm for methane oxidation was small, suggesting that steps other than C-H bond breakage were rate limiting in the overall enzymatic reaction. Similar isotope effects have been observed for cytochrome P-450. These observations indicate a stepwise mechanism of hydroxylation for methane monooxygenase analogous to that proposed for cytochrome P-450.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)  (+info)

A direct route to cyclic organic nanostructures via ring-expansion metathesis polymerization of a dendronized macromonomer. (24/72)

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