A primer on referring patients for psychotherapy.
Forty percent of the mental health care in this country is provided by primary care practitioners alone, and another 20% is provided by primary care practitioners working with mental health professionals. Primary care physicians can serve a valuable role by educating their patients about various forms of psychotherapy. Finding a good "fit" between patient and therapist is crucial to a good outcome. We discuss which psychotherapeutic techniques are appropriate for various emotional problems and the advantages and disadvantages of each. (+info)
Economic evaluation of interventions for problem drinking and alcohol dependence: cost per QALY estimates.
AIMS: To compare the performance of competing and complementary interventions for prevention or treatment of problem drinking and alcohol dependence. To provide an example of how health maximising decision-makers might use performance measures such as cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) league tables to formulate an optimal package of interventions for problem drinking and alcohol dependence. METHODS: A time-dependent state-transition model was used to estimate QALYs gained per person for each intervention as compared to usual care in the relevant target population. RESULTS: Cost per QALY estimates for each of the interventions fall below any putative funding threshold for developed economies. Interventions for problem drinkers appear to offer better value than interventions targeted at those with a history of severe physical dependence. CONCLUSIONS: Formularies such as Australia's Medicare should include a comprehensive package of interventions for problem drinking and alcohol dependence. (+info)
The effectiveness of motivational interviewing delivered by youth workers in reducing drinking, cigarette and cannabis smoking among young people: quasi-experimental pilot study.
AIM: To test whether a single session of Motivational Interviewing (MI) focussing on drinking alcohol, and cigarette and cannabis smoking, would successfully lead to reductions in use or problems. METHODS: Naturalistic quasi-experimental study, in 162 young people (mean age 17 years) who were daily cigarette smokers, weekly drinkers or weekly cannabis smokers, comparing 59 receiving MI with 103 non-intervention assessment-only controls. MI was delivered in a single session by youth workers or by the first author. Assessment was made of changes in self-reported cigarette, alcohol, cannabis use and related indicators of risk and problems between recruitment and after 3 months by self-completion questionnaire. RESULTS: 87% of subjects (141 of 162) were followed up. The most substantial evidence of benefit was achieved in relation to alcohol consumption, with those receiving MI drinking on average two days per month less than controls after 3 months. Weaker evidences of impact on cigarette smoking, and no evidence of impact on cannabis use, were obtained. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence of effectiveness for the delivery of MI by youth workers in routine conditions has been identified. However, the extent of benefit is much more modest than previously identified in efficacy studies. (+info)
Costs and consequences of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's recommendations for opt-out HIV testing.
BACKGROUND: The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently recommended opt-out HIV testing (testing without the need for risk assessment and counseling) in all health care encounters in the US for persons 13-64 years old. However, the overall costs and consequences of these recommendations have not been estimated before. In this paper, I estimate the costs and public health impact of opt-out HIV testing relative to testing accompanied by client-centered counseling, and relative to a more targeted counseling and testing strategy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Basic methods of scenario and cost-effectiveness analysis were used, from a payer's perspective over a one-year time horizon. I found that for the same programmatic cost of US$864,207,288, targeted counseling and testing services (at a 1% HIV seropositivity rate) would be preferred to opt-out testing: targeted services would newly diagnose more HIV infections (188,170 versus 56,940), prevent more HIV infections (14,553 versus 3,644), and do so at a lower gross cost per infection averted (US$59,383 versus US$237,149). While the study is limited by uncertainty in some input parameter values, the findings were robust across a variety of assumptions about these parameter values (including the estimated HIV seropositivity rate in the targeted counseling and testing scenario). CONCLUSIONS: While opt-out testing may be able to newly diagnose over 56,000 persons living with HIV in one year, abandoning client-centered counseling has real public health consequences in terms of HIV infections that could have been averted. Further, my analyses indicate that even when HIV seropositivity rates are as low as 0.3%, targeted counseling and testing performs better than opt-out testing on several key outcome variables. These analytic findings should be kept in mind as HIV counseling and testing policies are debated in the US. (+info)
Problem-solving therapy and supportive therapy in older adults with major depression and executive dysfunction.
Nondirectiveness in genetic counseling: an empirical study.
Nondirectiveness is considered an essential part of genetic counseling, yet there is no generally accepted definition nor data documenting its impact on counselees. This study is an empirical investigation of directiveness, using ratings from transcripts of consultations and comparing these with counselor-reported and counselee-reported directiveness. Rated directiveness was defined as advice, expressed views about or selective reinforcement of counselees' behavior, thoughts, or emotions (advice, evaluation, and reinforcement). Analysis of 131 transcripts revealed a mean of 5.8 advice statements per consultation, 5.8 evaluative statements, and 1.7 reinforcing statements. When asked to describe their counseling style, none of the 11 counselors rated it as "not at all" directive. Half the counselees who faced a decision felt steered by the counselor. Items of rated directiveness showed satisfactory interrater reliability (kappa = .63). Factor analysis revealed that they formed one factor (eigenvalue 1.72). There were no associations either between counselor-reported, counselee-reported, and rated directiveness or between these measures and counselee anxiety and concern, satisfaction with information, or the meeting of counselees' expectations. Rated directiveness was the only measure to be associated with other process measures of the consultation, being associated with longer consultations, more blocks of speech, more social and emotional issues being raised, and fewer concerns being followed up. Advice was more likely to be given to counselees of lower socioeconomic status and to counselees judged by counselors to be highly concerned. Evaluative statements were more likely to be made by counselors who had received counseling training. These results show that genetic counseling was not characterized--by counselors, counselees, or a standardized rating scale--as uniformly nondirective. (+info)