Age-related reductions in [3H]WIN 35,428 binding to the dopamine transporter in nigrostriatal and mesolimbic brain regions of the fischer 344 rat. (1/111)

In the present study, we used the potent cocaine analog [3H]WIN 35, 428 to map and quantify binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT) within the dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens, substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental area in young (6-month-old), middle-aged (12-month-old), and aged (18- and 24-month-old) Fischer 344 rats. Quantitative autoradiographic analysis of indirect [3H]WIN 35,428 saturation curves revealed two-site binding for all four brain regions in every age group. The percentage of binding to the high- or low-affinity sites did not differ with age or region and was approximately 50%. However, significant age-related decreases in the overall density (Bmax) of [3H]WIN 35,428-binding sites were observed in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental area. The Bmax within all brain regions declined by more than 15% every 6 months, with the Bmax in the aged (24-month-old) group being approximately half that measured in the young adult (6-month-old) group. Competition experiments indicated that nomifensine also exhibited two-site binding to the DAT in Fischer 344 rats. No consistent age-related differences in binding affinities were noted with either [3H]WIN 35,428 or nomifensine. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that functional DATs within the nigrostriatal and mesolimbic systems are down-regulated with age, without changing their affinity for ligands.  (+info)

Recovery of dopamine neuronal transporter but lack of change of its mRNA in substantia nigra after inactivation by a new irreversible inhibitor characterized in vitro and ex vivo in the rat. (2/111)

1. In vitro, the ability of DEEP-NCS {1-[2-(diphenylmethoxy)ethyl]-4-[2-(4-isothiocyanatophenyl)ethyl]- piperazine} to inhibit [3H]-dopamine uptake by rat striatal synaptosomes was concentration-dependent and inversely related to the protein concentration. This inhibition was irreversible and resulted from changes in Vmax and KM. DEEP-NCS was less potent on noradrenaline, serotonin and choline transport. 2. One day after intrastriatal injections of DEEP-NCS (100 and 1000 pmol) in 20% dimethylsulphoxide, moderate decreases in the ex vivo dopamine uptake were observed in synaptosomes obtained from striatum injected with DEEP-NCS or solvent, and the contralateral uninjected striatum. 3. In similar conditions, 300 pmol DEEP-NCS in 45% 2 hydroxypropyl-gamma-cyclodextrin - 0.5% dimethylsulphoxide solution sub-totally reduced ex vivo dopamine uptake and mazindol binding, and moderately decreased choline and serotonin transport. These reductions were specific to DEEP-NCS-injected striata. A clomipramine pretreatment (16 mg kg-1 i.p. 1 h before) was performed in following experiments, since it reduced the DEEP-NCS-elicited decrease in serotonin uptake without affecting other indices. 4. One day after intrastriatal injection, DEEP-NCS elicited similar dose-dependent decreases in ex vivo dopamine uptake and mazindol binding (ID50=6.9-8 ng striatum-1). Changes in KM and Vmax for ex vivo dopamine transport produced by DEEP-NCS disappeared according to similar time-courses. 5. The t(1/2) for transporter recovery was 6. 1 days. This value should correspond to its actual turnover rate in vivo, since no change in transporter mRNA level was observed in substantia nigra ipsilateral to 300 pmol DEEP-NCS-injected striatum. 6. The results indicate that DEEP-NCS behaves as a potent, quite selective, irreversible inhibitor of the DAT, in vitro and in vivo. Its use in vivo suggests that the physiological half-life of the rat striatal DAT is close to 6 days.  (+info)

The inhibition of monoamine oxidase activity by various antidepressants: differences found in various mammalian species. (3/111)

The effects of the antidepressant drugs zimeldine, imipramine, maprotiline or nomifensine on mitochondrial monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity in mouse, rat, dog and monkey brains were compared in vitro. Mouse, rat, dog and monkey brain MAO-B activities were inhibited by zimeldine more potently than MAO-A activity. Imipramine inhibited MAO-B more potently than MAO-A activity in mouse and rat brains. When dog and monkey brains were investigated, MAO-A activity was inhibited more potently than MAO-B activity at high concentrations of imipramine, while at low concentrations, MAO-B activity was more potently inhibited. Maprotiline and nomifensine inhibited mouse and rat brain MAO-B activity more potently than MAO-A activity, while the inverse was true for dog and monkey brains. All four drugs are competitive inhibitors of MAO-A, but noncompetitive inhibitors of MAO-B in all animal brains. The respective Ki values of these reagents for monkey brain MAO-A and MAO-B were low compared to those of mouse, rat and dog. These results indicate that monkey brain MAOs are more sensitive to antidepressant drugs than those in rodent brain.  (+info)

Changes in seizure susceptibility to local anesthetics by repeated administration of cocaine and nomifensine but not GBR12935: possible involvement of noradrenergic system. (4/111)

We examined cross-sensitization of cocaine and synthetic local anesthetics to their seizure susceptibility after repeated administration. Seizure susceptibility of procaine and lidocaine increased after the end of two days of treatment with a subconvulsive dose of cocaine. Acute treatment with nomifensine but not GBR12935, a specific inhibitor of the dopamine transporter, facilitated lidocaine-induced convulsion. Furthermore, daily treatment with nomifensine for two days enhanced lidocaine-induced convulsion. These results suggest the possible involvement of the brain noradrenergic system in the changes in seizure susceptibility after repeated administration of some local anesthetics.  (+info)

Preferential increases in nucleus accumbens dopamine after systemic cocaine administration are caused by unique characteristics of dopamine neurotransmission. (5/111)

In vivo voltammetry was used to investigate the preferential increase of extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens relative to the caudate-putamen after systemic cocaine administration. In the first part of this study, cocaine (40 mg/kg, i.p.) was compared with two other blockers of dopamine uptake, nomifensine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and 3beta-(p-chlorophenyl)tropan-2beta-carboxylic acid p-isothiocyanatophenylmethyl ester hydrochloride (RTI-76; 100 nmol, i.c.v.), to assess whether the inhibitory mechanism of cocaine differed in the two regions. All three drugs robustly increased electrically evoked levels of dopamine, and cocaine elevated dopamine signals to a greater extent in the nucleus accumbens. However, kinetic analysis of the evoked dopamine signals indicated that cocaine and nomifensine increased the K(m) for dopamine uptake whereas the dominant effect of RTI-76 was a decrease in V(max). Under the present in vivo conditions, therefore, cocaine is a competitive inhibitor of dopamine uptake in both the nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen. Whether the preferential effect of cocaine was mediated by regional differences in the presynaptic control of extracellular DA that are described by rates for DA uptake and release was examined next by a correlation analysis. The lower rates for dopamine release and uptake measured in the nucleus accumbens were found to underlie the preferential increase in extracellular dopamine after cocaine. This relationship explains the paradox that cocaine more effectively increases accumbal dopamine despite identical effects on the dopamine transporter in the two regions. The mechanism proposed for the preferential actions of cocaine may also mediate the differential effects of psychostimulant in extrastriatal regions and other uptake inhibitors in the striatum.  (+info)

Halothane potentiates the effect of methamphetamine and nomifensine on extracellular dopamine levels in rat striatum: a microdialysis study. (6/111)

Brain microdialysis was used to study the in vivo release and metabolism of dopamine (DA) in the rat striatum during halothane anaesthesia. Concentrations were measured in microdialysates collected every 20 min and applied directly to an on-line high-performance liquid chromatograph. Halothane was administered at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0%. In another series of experiments, rats were treated intraperitoneally or locally with methamphetamine, a drug of abuse, or with nomifensine, a dopamine uptake blocker and antidepressant, in combination with 0.5 or 1.5% halothane. Halothane anaesthesia did not affect the dialysate (extracellular) concentration of DA at 2.0%. By contrast, the concentrations of DA metabolites [3-methoxytyramine (3-MT), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA)] increased during inhaled halothane anaesthesia in a dose-dependent manner and recovered after anaesthesia. Halothane potentiated the ability of methamphetamine to increase the extracellular concentration of DA when administered systemically, whereas only a small increase in DA accumulation was seen when methamphetamine was administered locally via the perfusate. Similarly, the increase in extracellular DA was accentuated by systemic nomifensine during halothane anaesthesia, but no obvious enhancement was observed when it was applied locally. It has been shown that the neurotoxic effect of methamphetamine is mediated by the suboxidation of DA released from the cytoplasm into the extracellular space and transformed into highly reactive free radicals. On the basis of our results, it is suggested that care should be exercised when halothane anaesthesia is used in patients abusing phenylethylamines (amphetamines) or being treated with DA uptake blockers (nomifensine).  (+info)

Characterization of nicotinic agonist-induced [(3)H]dopamine release from synaptosomes prepared from four mouse brain regions. (7/111)

The inhibition of uptake of [(3)H]dopamine into synaptosomes prepared from four mouse brain regions was investigated. The inhibition curves demonstrated that in three regions, striatum, nucleus accumbens, and olfactory tubercle, [(3)H]dopamine was taken up exclusively by dopaminergic terminals. In frontal cortex, however, only a portion of the uptake was into dopaminergic terminals, with a larger amount taken up by noradrenergic terminals, and another small portion by serotonergic terminals. Release studies in frontal cortex indicated that in this region only dopaminergic and noradrenergic terminals are capable of packaging [(3)H]dopamine in a form allowing vesicle-mediated release; additionally, only the dopaminergic terminals have functional presynaptic nAChRs that, when stimulated by nicotinic agonists, evoke [(3)H]dopamine release. Agonist-stimulated [(3)H]dopamine release was characterized from synaptosomes prepared from four mouse brain regions. alpha-Conotoxin MII was a partial inhibitor of dopamine release in all of the brain regions, which suggests that a minimum of two nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChRs) are expressed in the nerve terminals of all four brain regions. No nicotine-induced [(3)H]dopamine release was detected in any brain region when the synaptosomes were prepared from beta2 null mutant mice, which indicates that the beta2 subunit is required for all nAChRs mediating this release. Dose-response curves were constructed for seven agonists in each of the brain regions. The pharmacological properties of synaptosomal [(3)H]dopamine release appear similar across the four brain regions. The results suggest that all four regions express the same nAChRs, although subtle regional differences may exist.  (+info)

The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram induces the storage of serotonin in catecholaminergic terminals. (8/111)

We investigated whether selective inhibition of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) transporter with citalopram leads to accumulation of 5-HT in catecholaminergic neurons. In the rabbit olfactory tubercle, citalopram (1-10 microM) inhibited [(3)H]5-HT uptake; however, the maximal degree of inhibition achieved was 70%. Addition of nomifensine (1-10 microM) was required for complete inhibition of [(3)H]5-HT uptake. In slices labeled with 0.1 microM [(3)H]5-HT, cold 5-HT (0.03-1 microM) induced a large increase in the efflux (release) of stored [(3)H]5-HT, an effect blocked by coperfusion with 1 microM citalopram. Similar concentrations (0.03-1 microM) of norepinephrine (NE) or dopamine (DA) failed to release [(3)H]5-HT. When labeling with 0.1 microM [(3)H]5-HT was carried out in the presence of citalopram, 1) low concentrations of 5-HT failed to release [(3)H]5-HT; 2) DA and NE were more potent and effective in releasing [(3)H]5-HT than in control slices; 3) coperfusion of NE, DA, or 5-HT with citalopram enhanced the release of [(3)H]5-HT induced by the catecholamines but not by 5-HT; and 4) coperfusion of NE or DA with nomifensine antagonized NE- and DA-evoked [(3)H]5-HT release, with a greater effect on NE than on DA. These results suggest that in the rabbit olfactory tubercle, where there is coexistence of 5-HT, NE, and DA neurons, inhibition of the 5-HT transporter led to accumulation of 5-HT in catecholaminergic terminals. Thus, during treatment with selective serotonin uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), 5-HT may be stored in catecholaminergic neurons acting as a false neurotransmitter and/or affecting the disposition of DA and/or NE. Transmitter relocation may be involved in the antidepressant action of SSRIs.  (+info)