EB1, a protein which interacts with the APC tumour suppressor, is associated with the microtubule cytoskeleton throughout the cell cycle.
The characteristics of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) associated protein EB1 were examined in mammalian cells. By immunocytochemistry EB1 was shown to be closely associated with the microtubule cytoskeleton throughout the cell cycle. In interphase cells EB1 was associated with microtubules along their full length but was often particularly concentrated at their tips. During early mitosis, EB1 was localized to separating centrosomes and associated microtubules, while at metaphase it was associated with the spindle poles and associated microtubules. During cytokinesis EB1 was strongly associated with the midbody microtubules. Treatment with nocodazole caused a diffuse redistribution of EB1 immunoreactivity, whereas treatment with cytochalasin D had no effect. Interestingly, treatment with taxol abolished the EB1 association with microtubules. In nocodazole washout experiments EB1 rapidly became associated with the centrosome and repolymerizing microtubules. In taxol wash-out experiments EB1 rapidly re-associated with the microtubule cytoskeleton, resembling untreated control cells within 10 min. Immunostaining of SW480 cells, which contain truncated APC incapable of interaction with EB1, showed that the association of EB1 with microtubules throughout the cell cycle was not dependent upon an interaction with APC. These results suggest a role for EB1 in the control of microtubule dynamics in mammalian cells. (+info)
Microtubule-dependent plus- and minus end-directed motilities are competing processes for nuclear targeting of adenovirus.
Adenovirus (Ad) enters target cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, escapes to the cytosol, and then delivers its DNA genome into the nucleus. Here we analyzed the trafficking of fluorophore-tagged viruses in HeLa and TC7 cells by time-lapse microscopy. Our results show that native or taxol-stabilized microtubules (MTs) support alternating minus- and plus end-directed movements of cytosolic virus with elementary speeds up to 2.6 micrometer/s. No directed movement was observed in nocodazole-treated cells. Switching between plus- and minus end-directed elementary speeds at frequencies up to 1 Hz was observed in the periphery and near the MT organizing center (MTOC) after recovery from nocodazole treatment. MT-dependent motilities allowed virus accumulation near the MTOC at population speeds of 1-10 micrometer/min, depending on the cell type. Overexpression of p50/dynamitin, which is known to affect dynein-dependent minus end-directed vesicular transport, significantly reduced the extent and the frequency of minus end-directed migration of cytosolic virus, and increased the frequency, but not the extent of plus end-directed motility. The data imply that a single cytosolic Ad particle engages with two types of MT-dependent motor activities, the minus end- directed cytoplasmic dynein and an unknown plus end- directed activity. (+info)
CLIP-170 highlights growing microtubule ends in vivo.
A chimera with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been constructed to visualize the dynamic properties of the endosome-microtubule linker protein CLIP170 (GFP-CLIP170). GFP-CLIP170 binds in stretches along a subset of microtubule ends. These fluorescent stretches appear to move with the growing tips of microtubules at 0.15-0.4 microm/s, comparable to microtubule elongation in vivo. Analysis of speckles along dynamic GFP-CLIP170 stretches suggests that CLIP170 treadmills on growing microtubule ends, rather than being continuously transported toward these ends. Drugs affecting microtubule dynamics rapidly inhibit movement of GFP-CLIP170 dashes. We propose that GFP-CLIP170 highlights growing microtubule ends by specifically recognizing the structure of a segment of newly polymerized tubulin. (+info)
Distribution of 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate staining during meiotic maturation and fertilization in vitro of mouse oocytes.
The aim of this confocal microscopy study was to determine whether the pattern of CellTracker Green 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate (CMFDA) staining changes during meiotic maturation and fertilization in vitro of mouse oocytes. At different times during meiotic maturation and fertilization, oocytes, zygotes and two-cell embryos were stained with CMFDA to demonstrate intracellular glutathione S-transferase activity. After washing in CMFDA-free medium, most oocytes, zygotes and embryos were stained with dihydroethidium (HE) to visualize DNA structures. Meiotic maturation and fertilization in vitro of mouse oocytes were associated with changes in the pattern of intracellular CMFDA staining. In particular, accumulations of CMFDA-positive membranes were observed around the nucleus of germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes, overlaying the sperm nucleus as well as overlaying the first mitotic spindle if this approached the plasma membrane. Staining of oocytes and zygotes with the probes 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodine [DiOC6(3)], which stains all the intracellular membranes, and rhodamine 123, which stains active mitochondria, demonstrated that the intracellular structures evidenced by CMFDA staining did not correspond to accumulations of mitochondria. Exposure of oocytes and zygotes to the microtubule-disrupting agent nocodazole or the actin-depolymerizing drug cytochalasin D revealed an autonomous microfilament-dependent transport and relocation of CMFDA-positive membranes during meiotic maturation and fertilization. Such a transport of CMFDA-positive membranes may be envisaged as a protective shield built to prevent damage to DNA from endogenous and exogenous mutagen metabolites. (+info)
Binding of Gal4p and bicoid to nucleosomal sites in yeast in the absence of replication.
The yeast transcriptional activator Gal4p can bind to sites in nucleosomal DNA in vivo which it is unable to access in vitro. One event which could allow proteins to bind to otherwise inaccessible sites in chromatin in living cells is DNA replication. To determine whether replication is required for Gal4p to bind to nucleosomal sites in yeast, we have used previously characterized chromatin reporters in which Gal4p binding sites are incorporated into nucleosomes. We find that Gal4p is able to perturb nucleosome positioning via nucleosomal binding sites in yeast arrested either in G1, with alpha-factor, or in G2/M, with nocodazole. Similar results were obtained whether Gal4p synthesis was induced from the endogenous promoter by growth in galactose medium or by an artificial, hormone-inducible system. We also examined binding of the Drosophila transcriptional activator Bicoid, which belongs to the homeodomain class of transcription factors. We show that Bicoid, like Gal4p, can bind to nucleosomal sites in SWI+ and swi1Delta yeast and in the absence of replication. Our results indicate that some feature of the intracellular environment other than DNA replication or the SWI-SNF complex permits factor access to nucleosomal sites. (+info)
Intracellular trafficking pathways in the assembly of connexins into gap junctions.
Trafficking pathways underlying the assembly of connexins into gap junctions were examined using living COS-7 cells expressing a range of connexin-aequorin (Cx-Aeq) chimeras. By measuring the chemiluminescence of the aequorin fusion partner, the translocation of oligomerized connexins from intracellular stores to the plasma membrane was shown to occur at different rates that depended on the connexin isoform. Treatment of COS-7 cells expressing Cx32-Aeq and Cx43-Aeq with brefeldin A inhibited the movement of these chimera to the plasma membrane by 84 +/- 4 and 88 +/- 4%, respectively. Nocodazole treatment of the cells expressing Cx32-Aeq and Cx43-Aeq produced 29 +/- 16 and 4 +/- 7% inhibition, respectively. In contrast, the transport of Cx26 to the plasma membrane, studied using a construct (Cx26/43T-Aeq) in which the short cytoplasmic carboxyl-terminal tail of Cx26 was replaced with the extended carboxyl terminus of Cx43, was inhibited 89 +/- 5% by nocodazole and was minimally affected by exposure of cells to brefeldin A (17 +/-11%). The transfer of Lucifer yellow across gap junctions between cells expressing wild-type Cx32, Cx43, and the corresponding Cx32-Aeq and Cx43-Aeq chimeras was reduced by nocodazole treatment and abolished by brefeldin A treatment. However, the extent of dye coupling between cells expressing wild-type Cx26 or the Cx26/43T-Aeq chimeras was not significantly affected by brefeldin A treatment, but after nocodazole treatment, transfer of dye to neighboring cells was greatly reduced. These contrasting effects of brefeldin A and nocodazole on the trafficking properties and intercellular dye transfer are interpreted to suggest that two pathways contribute to the routing of connexins to the gap junction. (+info)
The growth-related, translationally controlled protein P23 has properties of a tubulin binding protein and associates transiently with microtubules during the cell cycle.
The translationally controlled protein P23 was discovered by the early induction of its rate of synthesis after mitogenic stimulation of mouse fibroblasts. P23 is expressed in almost all mammalian tissues and it is highly conserved between animals, plants and yeast. Based on its amino acid sequence, P23 cannot be attributed to any known protein family, and its cellular function remains to be elucidated. Here, we present evidence that P23 has properties of a tubulin binding protein that associates with microtubules in a cell cycle-dependent manner. (1) P23 is a cytoplasmic protein that occurs in complexes of 100-150 kDa, and part of P23 can be immunoprecipitated from HeLa cell extracts with anti-tubulin antibodies. (2) In immunolocalisation experiments we find P23 associated with microtubules during G1, S, G2 and early M phase of the cell cycle. At metaphase, P23 is also bound to the mitotic spindle, and it is detached from the spindle during metaphase-anaphase transition. (3) A GST-P23 fusion protein interacts with alpha- and beta-tubulin, and recombinant P23 binds to taxol-stabilised microtubules in vitro. The tubulin binding domain of P23 was identified by mutational analysis; it shows similarity to part of the tubulin binding domain of the microtubule-associated protein MAP-1B. (4) Overexpression of P23 results in cell growth retardation and in alterations of cell morphology. Moreover, elevation of P23 levels leads to microtubule rearrangements and to an increase in microtubule mass and stability. (+info)
Golgi structure correlates with transitional endoplasmic reticulum organization in Pichia pastoris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Golgi stacks are often located near sites of "transitional ER" (tER), where COPII transport vesicles are produced. This juxtaposition may indicate that Golgi cisternae form at tER sites. To explore this idea, we examined two budding yeasts: Pichia pastoris, which has coherent Golgi stacks, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which has a dispersed Golgi. tER structures in the two yeasts were visualized using fusions between green fluorescent protein and COPII coat proteins. We also determined the localization of Sec12p, an ER membrane protein that initiates the COPII vesicle assembly pathway. In P. pastoris, Golgi stacks are adjacent to discrete tER sites that contain COPII coat proteins as well as Sec12p. This arrangement of the tER-Golgi system is independent of microtubules. In S. cerevisiae, COPII vesicles appear to be present throughout the cytoplasm and Sec12p is distributed throughout the ER, indicating that COPII vesicles bud from the entire ER network. We propose that P. pastoris has discrete tER sites and therefore generates coherent Golgi stacks, whereas S. cerevisiae has a delocalized tER and therefore generates a dispersed Golgi. These findings open the way for a molecular genetic analysis of tER sites. (+info)