Electron transfer reactions in the alkene mono-oxygenase complex from Nocardia corallina B-276.
Nocardia corallina B-276 possesses a multi-component enzyme, alkene mono-oxygenase (AMO), that catalyses the stereoselective epoxygenation of alkenes. The reductase component of this system has been shown by EPR and fluorescence spectroscopy to contain two prosthetic groups, an FAD centre and a [2Fe-2S] cluster. The role of these centres in the epoxygenation reaction was determined by midpoint potential measurements and electron transfer kinetics. The order of potentials of the prosthetic groups of the reductase were FAD/FAD.=-216 mV, [2Fe-2S]/[2Fe-2S].=-160 mV and FAD./FAD.=-134 mV. Combined, these data implied that the reductase component supplied the energy required for the epoxygenation reaction and allowed a prediction of the mechanism of electron transfer within the AMO complex. The FAD moiety was reduced by bound NADH in a two-electron reaction. The electrons were then transported to the [2Fe-2S] centre one at a time, which in turn reduced the di-iron centre of the epoxygenase. Reduction of the di-iron centre is required for oxygen binding and substrate oxidation. (+info
Brasilicardin A, a new terpenoid antibiotic from pathogenic Nocardia brasiliensis: fermentation, isolation and biological activity.
A novel tricyclic diterpenoid antibiotic, brasilicardin A, was isolated from the culture broth of Nocardia brasiliensis IFM 0406. The antibiotic exhibited immunosuppressive activity in a mouse mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) assay system and its IC50 value was 0.057 microg/ml. Although the inhibitory activity of cyclosporin A (CyA) against IL-2 production was confirmed in the MLR assay system, brasilicardin A did not have the activity. The results of in vitro toxicity testing of brasilicardin A against various human cell lines were compared with those of CyA. (+info
Disseminated nocardiosis in a bone marrow transplant recipient with chronic GVHD.
We describe a case of disseminated nocardiosis in a 53-year-old male allogeneic marrow recipient with chronic GVHD, 15 years post BMT. Six months prior to admission he was treated for recurrent chronic GVHD with corticosteroids with a good response. He deteriorated subsequently while still on steroids requiring admission for fever, anorexia, weight loss, productive cough and progressive dyspnoea. On admission he had multiple nodular lesions on chest roentgenogram and subsequently grew Nocardia farcinica in blood culture. N. farcinica is rare post BMT, has a high mortality, is resistant to various antibiotics and needs prolonged antimicrobial therapy. We report the successful management of our patient with single agent trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. (+info
Inducing effect of diamines on transcription of the cephamycin C genes from the lat and pcbAB promoters in Nocardia lactamdurans.
The diamines putrescine, cadaverine, and diaminopropane stimulate cephamycin biosynthesis in Nocardia lactamdurans, in shake flasks and fermentors, without altering cell growth. Intracellular levels of the P7 protein (a component of the methoxylation system involved in cephamycin biosynthesis) were increased by diaminopropane, as shown by immunoblotting studies. Lysine-6-aminotransferase and piperideine-6-carboxylate dehydrogenase activities involved in biosynthesis of the alpha-aminoadipic acid precursor were also greatly stimulated. The diamine stimulatory effect is exerted at the transcriptional level, as shown by low-resolution S1 protection studies. The transcript corresponding to the pcbAB gene and to a lesser extent also the lat transcript were significantly increased in diaminopropane-supplemented cultures, whereas transcription from the cefD promoter was not affected. Coupling of the lat and pcbAB promoters to the reporter xylE gene showed that expression from the lat and pcbAB promoters was increased by addition of diaminopropane in Streptomyces lividans. Intracellular accumulation of diamines in Nocardia may be a signal to trigger antibiotic production. (+info
Immune response to Nocardia brasiliensis antigens in an experimental model of actinomycetoma in BALB/c mice.
Nine- to twelve-week-old BALB/c mice were injected in footpads with 10(7) CFU of a Nocardia brasiliensis cell suspension. Typical actinomycetoma lesions, characterized by severe local inflammation with abscess and fistula formation, were fully established by day 28 after infection. These changes presented for 90 days, and then tissue repair with scar formation slowly appeared, with complete healing after 150 days of infection. Some animals developed bone destruction in the affected area. Histopathology showed an intense inflammatory response, with polymorphonuclear cells and hyaloid material around the colonies of the bacteria, some of which were discharged from draining abscesses. Sera from experimental animals were analyzed by Western blotting, and immunodominant antigens P61 and P24 were found as major targets for antibody response. Anti-P24 immunoglobulin M (IgM) isotype antibodies were present as early as 7 days, IgG peaking 45 days after infection. Lymphocyte proliferation with spleen and popliteal lymph node cells demonstrated thymidine incorporation at 7 days after infection, the stimulation index decreasing by day 60. Levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the sera of infected animals. The circulating levels of IFN-gamma increased more than 10 times the basal levels; levels of IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 also increased during the first 4 days of infection. (+info
Nocardia salmonicida nom. rev., a fish pathogen.
An almost complete gene sequence of 16S rDNA of 'Nocardia salmonicida' strain JCM 4826T was determined following cloning and sequencing of the amplified gene. The sequence was aligned with those available for nocardiae and phylogenetic trees inferred using four tree-making algorithms. The organism and the type strain of Nocardia asteroides consistently formed a monophyletic clade with a distant sequence similarity of 97%. However, previous DNA relatedness experiments showed that strain JCM 4826T and Nocardia asteroides ATCC 19247T belong to different genomic species. The organism was also distinguished from representatives of all validly described species of Nocardia using a combination of phenotypic features. The polyphasic evidence showed that the strain merits recognition as a new species of the genus Nocardia. The name proposed for the new species is Nocardia salmonicida nom. rev. (+info
Bacterial nitric oxide synthesis.
The structure-function relationships in nitrite reductases, key enzymes in the dissimilatory denitrification pathway which reduce nitrite to nitric oxide (NO), are reviewed in this paper. The mechanisms of NO production are discussed in detail and special attention is paid to new structural information, such as the high resolution structure of the copper- and heme-containing enzymes from different sources. Finally, some implications relevant to regulation of the steady state levels of NO in denitrifiers are presented. (+info
Distribution of a Nocardia brasiliensis catalase gene fragment in members of the genera Nocardia, Gordona, and Rhodococcus.
An immunodominant protein from Nocardia brasiliensis, P61, was subjected to amino-terminal and internal sequence analysis. Three sequences of 22, 17, and 38 residues, respectively, were obtained and compared with the protein database from GenBank by using the BLAST system. The sequences showed homology to some eukaryotic catalases and to a bromoperoxidase-catalase from Streptomyces violaceus. Its identity as a catalase was confirmed by analysis of its enzymatic activity on H2O2 and by a double-staining method on a nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine and ferricyanide; the result showed only catalase activity, but no peroxidase. By using one of the internal amino acid sequences and a consensus catalase motif (VGNNTP), we were able to design a PCR assay that generated a 500-bp PCR product. The amplicon was analyzed, and the nucleotide sequence was compared to the GenBank database with the observation of high homology to other bacterial and eukaryotic catalases. A PCR assay based on this target sequence was performed with primers NB10 and NB11 to confirm the presence of the NB10-NB11 gene fragment in several N. brasiliensis strains isolated from mycetoma. The same assay was used to determine whether there were homologous sequences in several type strains from the genera Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Gordona, and Streptomyces. All of the N. brasiliensis strains presented a positive result but only some of the actinomycetes species tested were positive in the PCR assay. In order to confirm these findings, genomic DNA was subjected to Southern blot analysis. A 1.7-kbp band was observed in the N. brasiliensis strains, and bands of different molecular weight were observed in cross-reacting actinomycetes. Sequence analysis of the amplicons of selected actinomycetes showed high homology in this catalase fragment, thus demonstrating that this protein is highly conserved in this group of bacteria. (+info