A tidal breathing model for the multiple inert gas elimination technique.
The tidal breathing lung model described for the sine-wave technique (D. J. Gavaghan and C. E. W. Hahn. Respir. Physiol. 106: 209-221, 1996) is generalized to continuous ventilation-perfusion and ventilation-volume distributions. This tidal breathing model is then applied to the multiple inert gas elimination technique (P. D. Wagner, H. A. Saltzman, and J. B. West. J. Appl. Physiol. 36: 588-599, 1974). The conservation of mass equations are solved, and it is shown that 1) retentions vary considerably over the course of a breath, 2) the retentions are dependent on alveolar volume, and 3) the retentions depend only weakly on the width of the ventilation-volume distribution. Simulated experimental data with a unimodal ventilation-perfusion distribution are inserted into the parameter recovery model for a lung with 1 or 2 alveolar compartments and for a lung with 50 compartments. The parameters recovered using both models are dependent on the time interval over which the blood sample is taken. For best results, the blood sample should be drawn over several breath cycles. (+info)
Pulmonary gas exchange during exercise in highly trained cyclists with arterial hypoxemia.
The causes of exercise-induced hypoxemia (EIH) remain unclear. We studied the mechanisms of EIH in highly trained cyclists. Five subjects had no significant change from resting arterial PO(2) (Pa(O(2)); 92.1 +/- 2.6 Torr) during maximal exercise (C), and seven subjects (E) had a >10-Torr reduction in Pa(O(2)) (81.7 +/- 4.5 Torr). Later, they were studied at rest and during various exercise intensities by using the multiple inert gas elimination technique in normoxia and hypoxia (13.2% O(2)). During normoxia at 90% peak O(2) consumption, Pa(O(2)) was lower in E compared with C (87 +/- 4 vs. 97 +/- 6 Torr, P < 0.001) and alveolar-to-arterial O(2) tension difference (A-aDO(2)) was greater (33 +/- 4 vs. 23 +/- 1 Torr, P < 0. 001). Diffusion limitation accounted for 23 (E) and 13 Torr (C) of the A-aDO(2) (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences between groups in arterial PCO(2) (Pa(CO(2))) or ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) inequality as measured by the log SD of the perfusion distribution (logSD(Q)). Stepwise multiple linear regression revealed that lung O(2) diffusing capacity (DL(O(2))), logSD(Q), and Pa(CO(2)) each accounted for approximately 30% of the variance in Pa(O(2)) (r = 0.95, P < 0.001). These data suggest that EIH has a multifactorial etiology related to DL(O(2)), VA/Q inequality, and ventilation. (+info)
Bedside assessment of cerebral blood flow by double-indicator dilution technique.
BACKGROUND: Currently, quantitative measurement of global cerebral blood flow (CBF) at bedside is not widely performed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a newly developed method for bedside measurement of CBF based on thermodilution in a clinical setting. METHODS: The investigation was performed in 14 anesthetized patients before coronary bypass surgery. CBF was altered by hypocapnia, normocapnia, and hypercapnia. CBF was measured simultaneously by the Kety-Schmidt inert-gas technique with argon and a newly developed transcerebral double-indicator dilution technique (TCID). For TCID, bolus injections of ice-cold indocyanine green were performed via a central venous line, and the resulting thermo-dye dilution curves were recorded simultaneously in the aorta and the jugular bulb using combined fiberoptic thermistor catheters. CBF was calculated from the mean transit times of the indicators through the brain. RESULTS: Both methods of measurement of CBF indicate a decrease during hypocapnia and an increase during hypercapnia, whereas cerebral metabolic rate remained unchanged. Bias between CBF(TCID) and CBFargon was -7.1+/-2.2 (SEM) ml x min(-1) x 100 g(-1); precision (+/- 2 x SD of differences) between methods was 26.6 ml x min(-1) x 100 g(-1). CONCLUSIONS: In the clinical setting, TCID was feasible and less time-consuming than alternative methods. The authors conclude that TCID is an alternative method to measure global CBF at bedside and offers a new opportunity to monitor cerebral perfusion of patients. (+info)
Visualization of gas flow and diffusion in porous media.
The transport of gases in porous materials is a crucial component of many important processes in science and technology. In the present work, we demonstrate how magnetic resonance microscopy with continuous flow laser-polarized noble gases makes it possible to "light up" and thereby visualize, with unprecedented sensitivity and resolution, the dynamics of gases in samples of silica aerogels and zeolite molecular sieve particles. The "polarization-weighted" images of gas transport in aerogel fragments are correlated to the diffusion coefficient of xenon obtained from NMR pulsed-field gradient experiments. The technique provides a unique means of studying the combined effects of flow and diffusion in systems with macroscopic dimensions and microscopic internal pore structure. (+info)
Fullerenes: an extraterrestrial carbon carrier phase for noble gases.
In this work, we report on the discovery of naturally occurring fullerenes (C60 to C400) in the Allende and Murchison meteorites and some sediment samples from the 65 million-year-old Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary layer (KTB). Unlike the other pure forms of carbon (diamond and graphite), fullerenes are extractable in an organic solvent (e.g., toluene or 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene). The recognition of this unique property led to the detection and isolation of the higher fullerenes in the Kratschmer/Huffmann arc evaporated graphite soot and in the carbon material in the meteorite and impact deposits. By further exploiting the unique ability of the fullerene cage structure to encapsulate and retain noble gases, we have determined that both the Allende and Murchison fullerenes and the KTB fullerenes contain trapped noble gases with ratios that can only be described as extraterrestrial in origin. (+info)
Correlation between ventilation and perfusion determines VA/Q heterogeneity in endotoxemia.
Endotoxin increases ventilation-to-perfusion ratio (VA/Q) heterogeneity in the lung, but the precise changes in alveolar ventilation (VA) and perfusion that lead to VA/Q heterogeneity are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine how endotoxin affects the distributions of ventilation and perfusion and the impact of these changes on VA/Q heterogeneity. Seven anesthetized, mechanically ventilated juvenile pigs were given E. coli endotoxin intravenously, and regional ventilation and perfusion were measured simultaneously by using aerosolized and injected fluorescent microspheres. Endotoxemia significantly decreased the correlation between regional ventilation and perfusion, increased perfusion heterogeneity, and redistributed perfusion between lung regions. In contrast, ventilation heterogeneity did not change, and redistribution of ventilation was modest. The decrease in correlation between regional ventilation and perfusion was responsible for significantly more VA/Q heterogeneity than were changes in ventilation or perfusion heterogeneity. We conclude that VA/Q heterogeneity increases during endotoxemia primarily as a result of the decrease in correlation between regional ventilation and perfusion, which is in turn determined primarily by changes in perfusion. (+info)
Sequential V(A)/Q distributions in the normal rabbit by micropore membrane inlet mass spectrometry.
We developed micropore membrane inlet mass spectrometer (MMIMS) probes to rapidly measure inert-gas partial pressures in small blood samples. The mass spectrometer output was linearly related to inert-gas partial pressure (r(2) of 0.996-1.000) and was nearly independent of large variations in inert-gas solubility in liquid samples. We infused six inert gases into five pentobarbital-anesthetized New Zealand rabbits and used the MMIMS system to measure inert-gas partial pressures in systemic and pulmonary arterial blood and in mixed expired gas samples. The retention and excretion data were transformed into distributions of ventilation-to-perfusion ratios (V(A)/Q) with the use of linear regression techniques. Distributions of V(A)/Q were unimodal and broad, consistent with prior reports in the normal rabbit. Total blood sample volume for each VA/Q distribution was 4 ml, and analysis time was 8 min. MMIMS provides a convenient method to perform the multiple inert-gas elimination technique rapidly and with small blood sample volumes. (+info)
Mixed-gas model for predicting decompression sickness in rats.
A mixed-gas model for rats was developed to further explore the role of different gases in decompression and to provide a global model for possible future evaluation of its usefulness for human prediction. A Hill-equation dose-response model was fitted to over 5,000 rat dives by using the technique of maximum likelihood. These dives used various mixtures of He, N(2), Ar, and O(2) and had times at depth up to 2 h and varied decompression profiles. Results supported past findings, including 1) differences among the gases in decompression risk (He < N(2) < Ar) and exchange rate (He > Ar approximately N(2)), 2) significant decompression risk of O(2), and 3) increased risk of decompression sickness with heavier animals. New findings included asymmetrical gas exchange with gas washout often unexpectedly faster than uptake. Model success was demonstrated by the relatively small errors (and their random scatter) between model predictions and actual incidences. This mixed-gas model for prediction of decompression sickness in rats is the first such model for any animal species that covers such a broad range of gas mixtures and dive profiles. (+info)