Regulation of beta-galactosidase expression in Bacillus megaterium DSM319 by a XylS/AraC-type transcriptional activator.
The beta-galactosidase-encoding bgaM gene of Bacillus megaterium DSM319 and the divergently orientated bgaR operon were isolated and sequenced. Both traits are subject to catabolite repression. A set of single-gene replacement mutants was generated and used to analyze gene function. BgaR was found to be a XylS/AraC-type positive transcriptional regulator of bgaM; a potential regulator binding site overlaps the bgaM promoter. A mechanism for regulation of beta-galactosidase expression in B. megaterium is proposed. (+info)
Maltose metabolism in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus litoralis: purification and characterization of key enzymes.
Maltose metabolism was investigated in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus litoralis. Maltose was degraded by the concerted action of 4-alpha-glucanotransferase and maltodextrin phosphorylase (MalP). The first enzyme produced glucose and a series of maltodextrins that could be acted upon by MalP when the chain length of glucose residues was equal or higher than four, to produce glucose-1-phosphate. Phosphoglucomutase activity was also detected in T. litoralis cell extracts. Glucose derived from the action of 4-alpha-glucanotransferase was subsequently metabolized via an Embden-Meyerhof pathway. The closely related organism Pyrococcus furiosus used a different metabolic strategy in which maltose was cleaved primarily by the action of an alpha-glucosidase, a p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG)-hydrolyzing enzyme, producing glucose from maltose. A PNPG-hydrolyzing activity was also detected in T. litoralis, but maltose was not a substrate for this enzyme. The two key enzymes in the pathway for maltose catabolism in T. litoralis were purified to homogeneity and characterized; they were constitutively synthesized, although phosphorylase expression was twofold induced by maltodextrins or maltose. The gene encoding MalP was obtained by complementation in Escherichia coli and sequenced (calculated molecular mass, 96,622 Da). The enzyme purified from the organism had a specific activity for maltoheptaose, at the temperature for maximal activity (98 degrees C), of 66 U/mg. A Km of 0.46 mM was determined with heptaose as the substrate at 60 degrees C. The deduced amino acid sequence had a high degree of identity with that of the putative enzyme from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 (66%) and with sequences of the enzymes from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima (60%) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (31%) but not with that of the enzyme from E. coli (13%). The consensus binding site for pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is conserved in the T. litoralis enzyme. (+info)
Structural equivalents of latency for lysosome hydrolases.
1. Structure-linked latency, a trait for most lysosome hydrolase activities, is customarily ascribed to the permeability-barrier function performed by the particle-limiting membrane, which shields enzyme sites from externally added substrates. 2. The influence of various substrate concentrations on the reaction rate has been measured for both free (non-latent) and total (completely unmasked by Triton X-100) hydrolase activities in rat liver cell-free preparations. The substrates were: beta-glycerophosphate, phenolphthalein mono-beta-glucuronide. p-nitrophenyl N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide and p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. The ratio (free activity/total activity) X 100 is called fractional free activity at any given substrate concentration. 3. The fractional free activity of beta-glucuronidase and beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase were clearly independent of substrate concentration, over the range examined, in both homogenates and lysosome-rich fractions. The fractional free activity of acid phosphatase appeared to be either unaffected (homogenate) or even depressed (lysosome-rich fraction) by increasing the beta-glycerophosphate concentration. The fractional free activity of beta-galactosidase consistently showed a non-linear increase with increasing substrate concentration in both homogenates and lysosome-rich fractions. 4. Procedures such as treatment with digitonin, hypo-osmotic shock and acid autolysis, although effective in causing varying degrees of resolution of the latency of lysosome hydrolase activities, were unable to modify appreciably the pattern of dependence or independence of their fractional free activities on substrate concentration, as compared with that exhibited by control preparations. Ouabain did not affect the free beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase activity of liver homogenates at all. 5. Preincubation of control preparations with beta-glycerophosphate or p-nitrophenyl beta-galactoside did not result in any significant stimulation of the free hydrolytic activity toward these substrates. 6. The results consistently support the view that the membrane of "intact" lysosomes is virtually impermeable to all the substrates tested, except for p-nitrophenyl beta-galactoside, for which the evidence is contradictory. Moreover the progressive unmasking of the hydrolase activities produced by these procedures in vitro reflects the increasing proportion of enzyme sites that are fully accessible to their substrates rather than a graded increase in the permeability of the lysosomal membrane. (+info)
Evaluation of the pathotec Rapid I-D system for identification of Enterobacteriaceae.
The PathoTec Rapid I-D System for identifying Enterobacteriaceae was evaluated with 471 cultures. In 4,910 individual test comparisons, 95.5% of the results agreed, with results of only two test strips, those for esculin hydrolysis and urease production, agreeing with conventional tests in less than 94% of the trials. The PathoTec system exhibited 94.3% accuracy in identifying these cultures in a double-blind study with conventional media and procedures as the alternate system. Two newly developed test strips, for 0-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside and ornithine decarboxylase, were found to be highly reliable. (+info)
MORLUC numeric system for the identification of Enterobacteriaceae.
Foul hundred eighty-six members of the Enterobacteriaceae representing nine genera were identified by conventional methods, and the results were compared with MORLUC (Biotrol Company Inc., Jamaica, N.Y.). MORLUC, an acronym for melibiose, ONPG (o-nitrophenyl-beta-galactopyranoside), rhamnose, lysine decarboxylase, urease, and citrate, are six prepackaged reagent-impregnated paper loops which are sealed within a plastic packet. The hydrogen sulfide reaction obtained from a triple sugar iron slant is coupled with MORLUC results and is readily converted into a three-digit numerical code, which is referenced on a preprinted single page listing. Additionally, the triple sugar iron is used to confirm the glucose fermentation by an unknown isolate. Comparisons of individual MORLUC tests and standard methods results in a better than 92% agreement, except for unrease. Four hundred sixty-six of the 486 bacterial isolates, or 96% of the strains which were numerically identified by MORLUC, agreed with conventional diagnoses. (+info)
Galactosylation of thiol group by beta-galactosidase.
beta-Galactosidase catalyzed beta-galactosylation not only of a hydroxyl group but also of a thiol group in the condensation reaction of D-galactose and 2-mercaptoethanol. The thio-galactosylation product was confirmed as 2-hydroxyethyl S-beta-D-galactoside on the bases of fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectorometry. Aspergillus oryzae beta-galactosidase hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl S-beta-D-galactoside most rapidly among several beta-galactosidases and produced the thio-galactosylation product most efficiently. The Penicillim multicolor enzyme was as effective as the A. oryzae enzyme. However the enzymes from Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces fragilis, Kluyveromyces lactis, and Bacillus circulans galactosylated hydroxyl groups predominantly to produce O-galactoside. The thio-galactoside was synthesized most effectively at a 2-mercaptoethanol concentration of about 1.25 M. Galactose concentration at 0.8-2.8 M did not affect the synthetic yield of the thiogalactoside so greatly. (+info)
Selective membrane permeabilization by the rotavirus VP5* protein is abrogated by mutations in an internal hydrophobic domain.
Rotavirus infectivity is dependent on the proteolytic cleavage of the VP4 spike protein into VP8* and VP5* proteins. Proteolytically activated virus, as well as expressed VP5*, permeabilizes membranes, suggesting that cleavage exposes a membrane-interactive domain of VP5* which effects rapid viral entry. The VP5* protein contains a single long hydrophobic domain (VP5*-HD, residues 385 to 404) at an internal site. In order to address the role of the VP5*-HD in permeabilizing cellular membranes, we analyzed the entry of o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) into cells induced to express VP5* or mutated VP5* polypeptides. Following IPTG (isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside) induction, VP5* and VP5* truncations containing the VP5*-HD permeabilized cells to the entry and cleavage of ONPG, while VP8* and control proteins had no effect on cellular permeability. Expression of VP5* deletions containing residues 265 to 474 or 265 to 404 permeabilized cells; however, C-terminal truncations which remove the conserved GGA (residues 399 to 401) within the HD abolished membrane permeability. Site-directed mutagenesis of the VP5-HD further demonstrated a requirement for residues within the HD for VP5*-induced membrane permeability. Functional analysis of mutant VP5*s indicate that conserved glycines within the HD are required and suggest that a random coiled structure rather than the strictly hydrophobic character of the domain is required for permeability. Expressed VP5* did not alter bacterial growth kinetics or lyse bacteria following induction. Instead, VP5*-mediated size-selective membrane permeability, releasing 376-Da carboxyfluorescein but not 4-kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran from preloaded liposomes. These findings suggest that the fundamental role for VP5* in the rotavirus entry process may be to expose triple-layered particles to low [Ca](i), which uncoats the virus, rather than to effect the detergent-like lysis of early endosomal membranes. (+info)
Engineering the active center of the 6-phospho-beta-galactosidase from Lactococcus lactis.
Several amino acids in the active center of the 6-phospho-beta-galactosidase from Lactococcus lactis were replaced by the corresponding residues in homologous enzymes of glycosidase family 1 with different specificities. Three mutants, W429A, K435V/Y437F and S428D/ K435V/Y437F, were constructed. W429A was found to have an improved specificity for glucosides compared with the wild-type, consistent with the theory that the amino acid at this position is relevant for the distinction between galactosides and glucosides. The k(cat)/K(m) for o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucose-6-phosphate is 8-fold higher than for o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactose-6-phosphate which is the preferred substrate of the wild-type enzyme. This suggests that new hydrogen bonds are formed in the mutant between the active site residues, presumably Gln19 or Trp421 and the C-4 hydroxyl group. The two other mutants with the exchanges in the phosphate-binding loop were tested for their ability to bind phosphorylated substrates. The triple mutant is inactive. The double mutant has a dramatically decreased ability to bind o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactose-6-phosphate whereas the interaction with o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactose is barely altered. This result shows that the 6-phospho-beta-galactosidase and the related cyanogenic beta-glucosidase from Trifolium repens have different recognition mechanisms for substrates although the structures of the active sites are highly conserved. (+info)