(1/1442) Endothelial function in Marfan syndrome: selective impairment of flow-mediated vasodilation.
BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular complications of Marfan syndrome arise due to alterations in the structural and functional properties of fibrillin, a constituent of vascular connective tissues. Fibrillin-containing microfibrils are closely associated with arterial endothelial cells, indicating a possible functional role for fibrillin in the endothelium. Plasma concentrations of endothelial cell products are elevated in Marfan subjects, which indirectly indicates endothelial dysfunction. This study directly assessed flow- and agonist-mediated endothelium-dependent brachial artery reactivity in Marfan subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 20 Marfan and 20 control subjects, brachial artery diameter, blood flow, and blood pressure were measured by ultrasonic wall tracking, Doppler ultrasound, and photoplethysmography, respectively. Measurements were taken during hand hyperemia (a stimulus for endothelium-derived nitric oxide [NO] release in the upstream brachial artery) and after sublingual administration of the endothelium-independent vasodilator nitroglycerin. In 9 Marfan and 6 control subjects, the above parameters were also assessed during intra-arterial infusions of acetylcholine and bradykinin (agonists that stimulate NO production) and NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, an inhibitor of NO production). Flow-mediated responses differed markedly between Marfan and control subjects (-1.6+/-3.5% versus 6. 50+/-4.1%, respectively; P<0.0001), whereas nitroglycerin produced similar vasodilation (14.2+/-5.7% versus 15.2+/-7.8%; P=NS). Agonist-induced vasodilation to incremental intra-arterial infusions of acetylcholine and bradykinin were not significantly different between Marfan and control subjects, and intra-arterial L-NMMA produced similar reductions in brachial artery diameter in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate impaired flow-mediated but preserved agonist-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation in Marfan subjects and suggest preservation of basal NO release. Selective loss of flow-mediated dilation suggests a role for fibrillin in endothelial cell mechanotransduction. (+info)
(2/1442) Coronary vasodilator effects of BNP: mechanisms of action in coronary conductance and resistance arteries.
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), a hormone secreted predominantly in ventricular myocytes, may influence coronary vascular tone. We studied the coronary vasodilatory response to BNP under physiological conditions and after preconstriction with endothelin-1 (ET-1) in anesthetized pigs. Average peak-flow velocity (APV) was measured using intracoronary Doppler, and cross-sectional area (CSA) was measured using intravascular ultrasound. Coronary blood flow (CBF) was calculated. Intracoronary BNP induced dose-dependent increases in CSA, APV, and CBF similar in magnitude to those induced by nitroglycerin (NTG). The magnitude of BNP-induced vasodilation was accentuated after preconstriction with ET-1. Pretreatment with either the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester or the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin attenuated the coronary vasodilator effect of BNP in resistance arteries without influencing epicardial vasodilation. Pretreatment with the ATP-sensitive potassium-channel blocker glibenclamide enhanced epicardial vasodilation in response to BNP. We conclude that BNP exerts coronary vasodilator effects, predominantly in epicardial conductance vessels. An accentuated vasodilatory response to BNP occurs in ET-1-preconstricted arteries. BNP-induced vasodilation in coronary resistance arteries may be partially mediated via nitric oxide and/or prostaglandin release. (+info)
(3/1442) Endothelial function is impaired in fit young adults of low birth weight.
OBJECTIVE: Non-insulin-dependent diabetes, hypertension and ischaemic heart disease, with insulin resistance, are associated with low birth weight (the 'Small Baby Syndrome'). Common to these adult clinical conditions is endothelial dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that endothelial dysfunction could precede their development in those of low birth weight. METHODS: Endothelial function was measured by ultrasonic 'wall-tracking' of flow-related brachial artery dilatation in fit 19-20 year old subjects randomly selected (blind to the investigators throughout the study) from low (< 2.5 kg) and normal (3.0-3.8 kg) birth weight subjects in the 1975-7 cohort of the Cardiff Births Survey and with no known cause for endothelial dysfunction. RESULTS: Flow-related dilatation was impaired in low birth weight relative to normal birth weight subjects (median 0.04 mm [1.5%] [n = 22] cf. 0.11 mm [4.1%] [n = 17], p < 0.05; 0.04 mm [1.5%] [n = 15] cf. 0.12 mm [4.4%] [n = 12], p < 0.05 after exclusion of inadvertently included ever-smokers). CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that endothelial dysfunction is a consequence of foetal malnutrition, consistent with contributing to the clinical features of the 'Small Baby Syndrome' in later adult life. (+info)
(4/1442) Transdermal nitroglycerine enhances spinal sufentanil postoperative analgesia following orthopedic surgery.
BACKGROUND: Sufentanil is a potent but short-acting spinal analgesic used to manage perioperative pain. This study evaluated the influence of transdermal nitroglycerine on the analgesic action of spinal sufentanil in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. METHODS: Fifty-six patients were randomized to one of four groups. Patients were premedicated with 0.05-0.1 mg/kg intravenous midazolam and received 15 mg bupivacaine plus 2 ml of the test drug intrathecally (saline or 10 microg sufentanil). Twenty to 30 min after the spinal puncture, a transdermal patch of either 5 mg nitroglycerin or placebo was applied. The control group received spinal saline and transdermal placebo. The sufentanil group received spinal sufentanil and transdermal placebo. The nitroglycerin group received spinal saline and transdermal nitroglycerine patch. Finally, the sufentanil-nitroglycerin group received spinal sufentanil and transdermal nitroglycerine. Pain and adverse effects were evaluated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. RESULTS: The time to first rescue analgesic medication was longer for the sufentanil-nitroglycerin group (785+/-483 min) compared with the other groups (P<0.005). The time to first rescue analgesics was also longer for the sufentanil group compared with the control group (P<0.05). The sufentanil-nitroglycerin group group required less rescue analgesics in 24 h compared with the other groups (P<0.02) and had lesser 24-h pain visual analog scale scores compared with the control group (P<0.005), although these scores were similar to the sufentanil and nitroglycerin groups (P>0.05). The incidence of perioperative adverse effects was similar among groups (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Transdermal nitroglycerine alone (5 mg/day), a nitric oxide generator, did not result in postoperative analgesia itself, but it prolonged the analgesic effect of spinal sufentanil (10 microg) and provided 13 h of effective postoperative analgesia after knee surgery. (+info)
(5/1442) Effects of nicorandil on aortic input impedance: a comparative study with nitroglycerin.
A study of aortic input impedance was performed to evaluate the effects of nicorandil on the systemic circulation, and the effects were compared with those of nitroglycerin. Sixteen patients with coronary artery disease were divided into 2 age-matched groups. Aortic input impedance was obtained from Fourier analysis of aortic pressure and flow signals at baseline conditions, after intravenous administration of either 4 mg (Group 1) or 8 mg (Group 2) nicorandil, and 20 min after 0.3 mg sublingual nitroglycerin. In Group 1, the first harmonic impedance modulus (Z1, 304+/-140 dyne x s x cm(-5)) and the average of the first to third harmonics (Z1-3, 207+/-99 dyne x s x cm(-5)), indices of wave reflection, significantly decreased (24.4% (p<0.05) and 24.7% (p<0.01), respectively) after nicorandil, and 41.3% (p<0.01) and 33.9% (p<0.01) after nitroglycerin. The effects between the 2 vasodilators were not significantly different. In Group 2, Z1 and Z1-3 (275+/-138 and 196+/-93 dyne x s x cm(-5), respectively) also decreased after administration of nicorandil (28.4% (p<0.01) and 35.9% (p<0.01), respectively), and after administration of nitroglycerin (23.9% (p<0.01) and 28.7% (p<0.01), respectively), without any significant difference between the 2 drugs. Characteristic impedance and total peripheral resistance (R) in both groups remained unchanged except for R after 8 mg nicorandil (from 1830+/-415 to 1433+/-428 dyne x s x cm(-5); p<0.01). Like nitroglycerin, both doses of nicorandil reduced wave reflection. The reduction in R after 8 mg nicorandil is related to decreased tone in the resistance arteries, probably due to potassium channel opener effects. (+info)
(6/1442) Does coronary artery morphology predict favorable results of intracoronary thrombolysis in patients with unstable angina pectoris?
The efficacy of intracoronary thrombolysis (ICT) for unstable angina pectoris (UAP) has been limited, despite the similar pathogenesis between UAP and acute myocardial infarction. To ascertain the subset of UAP suitable for ICT, the clinical responses to ICT were assessed in patients with UAP. Eighty-2 patients with medically refractory angina were divided into 2 groups according to the coronary artery morphology of the culprit lesion before ICT: (1) lesions with acute cut off and/or filling defects (AC) and (2) lesions with a tapered shape (TA). The TIMI flow grade was determined from coronary angiograms before and immediately after ICT. The diameter stenosis (%DS) and minimal lumen diameter (MLD) of the culprit lesion were determined using quantitative coronary angiographic analysis before and immediately after ICT. In addition, inhospital cardiac event rates including urgent/emergency coronary angioplasty or bypass surgery, nonfatal myocardial infarction or cardiac death were compared between the 2 groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed using 13 clinical factors contributing to successful ICT. The results showed that all 3 coronary angiographic parameters (TIMI flow, %DS, and MLD) significantly improved in the AC group (p<0.01, p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively), whereas none of these parameters improved in the TA group. The inhospital cardiac event rate after ICT was significantly higher in the TA group (76%) than in the AC group (48%; p=0.016). Odds ratio predicting successful ICT was 7.09 (p<0.01) for the AC lesion, and 2.54 (p<0.01) for new angina. In conclusion the AC lesions are more commonly associated with coronary thrombosis that responds to ICT than are the TA lesions. Thus, the coronary angiographic morphology may be an important predictor for a successful ICT in patients with medically refractory UAP. (+info)
(7/1442) Nitric-oxide-induced apoptosis in human leukemic lines requires mitochondrial lipid degradation and cytochrome C release.
We have previously shown that nitric oxide (NO) stimulates apoptosis in different human neoplastic lymphoid cell lines through activation of caspases not only via CD95/CD95L interaction, but also independently of such death receptors. Here we investigated mitochondria-dependent mechanisms of NO-induced apoptosis in Jurkat leukemic cells. NO donor glycerol trinitrate (at the concentration, which induces apoptotic cell death) caused (1) a significant decrease in the concentration of cardiolipin, a major mitochondrial lipid; (2) a downregulation in respiratory chain complex activities; (3) a release of the mitochondrial protein cytochrome c into the cytosol; and (4) an activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. These changes were accompanied by an increase in the number of cells with low mitochondrial transmembrane potential and with a high level of reactive oxygen species production. Higher resistance of the CD95-resistant Jurkat subclone (APO-R) cells to NO-mediated apoptosis correlated with the absence of cytochrome c release and with less alterations in other mitochondrial parameters. An inhibitor of lipid peroxidation, trolox, significantly suppressed NO-mediated apoptosis in APO-S Jurkat cells, whereas bongkrekic acid (BA), which blocks mitochondrial permeability transition, provided only a moderate antiapoptotic effect. Transfection of Jurkat cells with bcl-2 led to a complete block of apoptosis due to the prevention of changes in mitochondrial functions. We suggest that the mitochondrial damage (in particular, cardiolipin degradation and cytochrome c release) induced by NO in human leukemia cells plays a crucial role in the subsequent activation of caspase and apoptosis. (+info)
(8/1442) Comparison of atenolol with propranolol in the treatment of angina pectoris with special reference to once daily administration of atenolol.
Fourteen patients with angina pectoris completed a double blind trial of atenolol 25 mg, 50 mg, and 100 mg twice daily and propranolol 80 mg thrice daily. In comparison with placebo, all active treatments significantly reduced anginal attacks, consumption of glyceryl trinitrate, resting and exercise heart rate, resting and exercise systolic blood pressure, and significantly prolonged exercise time. There was no significant difference between the effects of propranolol and atenolol. Nine patients completed a further trial comparing atenolol given once or twice daily. Both regimens were effective and there was no significant difference between the reductions in anginal attacks, glyceryl trinitrate consumption, systolic blood pressure, or heart rate. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory electrocardiograms showed that atenolol consistently reduced heart rate throughout the 24-hour period whether given once or twice daily. Atenolol is a potent antianginal agent which, in most patients, is likely to be effective once daily. (+info)