Correlation of activity regulation and substrate recognition of the ADP-ribosyltransferase that regulates nitrogenase activity in Rhodospirillum rubrum.
In Rhodospirillum rubrum, nitrogenase activity is regulated posttranslationally through the ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase by dinitrogenase reductase ADP-ribosyltransferase (DRAT). Several DRAT variants that are altered both in the posttranslational regulation of DRAT activity and in the ability to recognize variants of dinitrogenase reductase have been found. This correlation suggests that these two properties are biochemically connected. (+info)
The presence of ADP-ribosylated Fe protein of nitrogenase in Rhodobacter capsulatus is correlated with cellular nitrogen status.
The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus has been shown to regulate its nitrogenase by covalent modification via the reversible ADP-ribosylation of Fe protein in response to darkness or the addition of external NH4+. Here we demonstrate the presence of ADP-ribosylated Fe protein under a variety of steady-state growth conditions. We examined the modification of Fe protein and nitrogenase activity under three different growth conditions that establish different levels of cellular nitrogen: batch growth with limiting NH4+, where the nitrogen status is externally controlled; batch growth on relatively poor nitrogen sources, where the nitrogen status is internally controlled by assimilatory processes; and continuous culture. When cultures were grown to stationary phase with different limiting concentrations of NH4+, the ADP-ribosylation state of Fe protein was found to correlate with cellular nitrogen status. Additionally, actively growing cultures (grown with N2 or glutamate), which had an intermediate cellular nitrogen status, contained a portion of their Fe protein in the modified state. The correlation between cellular nitrogen status and ADP-ribosylation state was corroborated with continuous cultures grown under various degrees of nitrogen limitation. These results show that in R. capsulatus the modification system that ADP-ribosylates nitrogenase in the short term in response to abrupt changes in the environment is also capable of modifying nitrogenase in accordance with long-term cellular conditions. (+info)
Classes of Anabaena variabilis mutants with oxygen-sensitive nitrogenase activity.
Mutants of Anabaena variabilis deficient in the envelope glycolipids of heterocysts have no or very low nitrogenase activity when assayed aerobically. Revertants capable of aerobic growth on N2 have increased quantities of these glycolipids. Among mutants which require fixed nitrogen for growth in air and which have a normal complement of glycolipids, one expresses high nitrogenase activity at low oxygen tension. Three others show high nitrogenase activity only in the presence of dithionite and are therefore impaired in electron transfer. (+info)
Azorhizobium caulinodans PII and GlnK proteins control nitrogen fixation and ammonia assimilation.
We herein report that Azorhizobium caulinodans PII and GlnK are not necessary for glutamine synthetase (GS) adenylylation whereas both proteins are required for complete GS deadenylylation. The disruption of both glnB and glnK resulted in a high level of GS adenylylation under the condition of nitrogen fixation, leading to ammonium excretion in the free-living state. PII and GlnK also controlled nif gene expression because NifA activated nifH transcription and nitrogenase activity was derepressed in glnB glnK double mutants, but not in wild-type bacteria, grown in the presence of ammonia. (+info)
MgATP-independent hydrogen evolution catalysed by nitrogenase: an explanation for the missing electron(s) in the MgADP-AlF4 transition-state complex.
When the MoFe (Kp1) and Fe (Kp2) component proteins of Klebsiella pneumoniae nitrogenase are incubated with MgADP and AlF4(-) in the presence of dithionite as a reducing agent, a stable putative transition-state complex is produced [Yousafzai and Eady (1997) Biochem. J. 326, 637-640]. Surprisingly, the EPR signal associated with reduced Kp2 is not detectable, but Kp1 retains the S=3/2 EPR signal arising from the dithionite reduced state of the MoFe cofactor centre of the protein. This is consistent with the [Fe4S4] centre of the Fe protein in the complex being oxidized, and similar observations have been made with the complex of Azotobacter vinelandii [Spee, Arendsen, Wassink, Marritt, Hagen and Haaker (1998) FEBS Lett. 432, 55-58]. No satisfactory explanation for the fate of the electrons lost by Kp2 has been forthcoming. However, we report here that during the preparation of the MgADP-AlF4 K. pneumoniae complex under argon, H2 was evolved in amounts corresponding to one half of the FeMoco content of the Kp1 (FeMoco is the likely catalytic site of nitrogenase with a composition Mo:Fe7:S9:homocitrate). This is surprising, since activity is observed during incubation in the absence of MgATP, normally regarded as being essential for nitrogenase function, and in the presence of MgADP, a strong competitive inhibitor of nitrogenase. The formation of H2 by nitrogenase in the absence of AlF4(-) was also observed in reaction mixtures containing MgADP but not MgATP. The reaction showed saturation kinetics when Kp1 was titrated with increasing amounts of Kp2 and, at saturation, the amount of H2 formed was stoichiometric with the FeMoco content of Kp1. The dependence of the rate of formation of H2 on [MgADP] was inconsistent with the activity arising from MgATP contamination. We conclude that MgATP is not obligatory for H+ reduction by nitrogenase since MgADP supports a very low rate of hydrogen evolution. (+info)
Organization and expression of nitrogen-fixation genes in the aerobic nitrogen-fixing unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain RF-1.
Sixteen nif and 'nif-associated' genes (expressed only under conditions of nitrogen fixation) in Synechococcus sp. strain RF-1 have been cloned and sequenced. All of the nif and nif-associated genes identified in Synechococcus RF-1 were arranged in a continuous cluster spanning approximately 18 kb and containing seven operons. The nifH operon (nifH-nifD-nifK) has been reported previously. nifB, fdxN, nifS, nifU and nifP were found to be located upstream of the nifH operon. nifB-fdxN-nifS-nifU were expressed as an operon. A nifP-like gene was found to be located just upstream of nifB. nifE, nifN, nifX, nifW and the nif-associated hesA, hesB and 'fdx' were found to be located downstream from nifK. The genes located downstream from nifK are arranged nifE-nifN-nifX-orf-nifW-hesA-hesB-'+ ++fdx' and span approximately 7 kb. The function of the ORF situated between nifX and nifW is not known. However, it was identified as a counterpart of ORF-2 in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 based on the deduced amino acid sequence. Northern hybridization and primer extension analysis indicated that the nif and nif-associated genes are organized in nifE-nifN, nifX-orf, nifW-hesA-hesB and 'fdx'-containing operons, respectively. According to the results of this study and previous reports, the genes are expressed in a rhythmic pattern with peaks during the dark phase when the culture is grown in a 12 h light/12 h dark regimen. The rhythm persisted after the culture was transferred to continuous illumination. (+info)
Requirement of NifX and other nif proteins for in vitro biosynthesis of the iron-molybdenum cofactor of nitrogenase.
The iron-molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co) of nitrogenase contains molybdenum, iron, sulfur, and homocitrate in a ratio of 1:7:9:1. In vitro synthesis of FeMo-co has been established, and the reaction requires an ATP-regenerating system, dithionite, molybdate, homocitrate, and at least NifB-co (the metabolic product of NifB), NifNE, and dinitrogenase reductase (NifH). The typical in vitro FeMo-co synthesis reaction involves mixing extracts from two different mutant strains of Azotobacter vinelandii defective in the biosynthesis of cofactor or an extract of a mutant strain complemented with the purified missing component. Surprisingly, the in vitro synthesis of FeMo-co with only purified components failed to generate significant FeMo-co, suggesting the requirement for one or more other components. Complementation of these assays with extracts of various mutant strains demonstrated that NifX has a role in synthesis of FeMo-co. In vitro synthesis of FeMo-co with purified components is stimulated approximately threefold by purified NifX. Complementation of these assays with extracts of A. vinelandii DJ42. 48 (DeltanifENX DeltavnfE) results in a 12- to 15-fold stimulation of in vitro FeMo-co synthesis activity. These data also demonstrate that apart from the NifX some other component(s) is required for the cofactor synthesis. The in vitro synthesis of FeMo-co with purified components has allowed the detection, purification, and identification of an additional component(s) required for the synthesis of cofactor. (+info)
Carbon and ammonia metabolism of Spirillum lipoferum.
Intact cells and extracts from Spirillum lipoferum rapidly oxidized malate, succinate, lactate, and pyruvate. Glucose, galactose, fructose, acetate, and citrate did not increase the rate of O2 uptake by cells above the endogenous rate. Cells grown on NH+/4 oxidized the various substrates at about the same rate as did cells grown on N2. Added oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide generally enhanced O2 uptake by extracts supplied organic acids, whereas oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate had little effect. Nitrogenase synthesis repressed by growth of cells in the presence of NH+/4 was derepressed by methionine sulfoximine or methionine sulfone. The total glutamine synthetase activity from N2-grown cells was about eight times that from NH+/4-grown S. lipoferum; the response of glutamate dehydrogenase was the opposite. The total glutamate synthetase activity from N2-grown S. lipoferum was 1.4 to 2.6 times that from NH+/4-grown cells. The levels of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate and beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase were elevated in cells grown on N2 as compared with those grown on NH+/4. Cell-free extracts capable of reducing C2H2 have been prepared; both Mg2+ and Mn2+ are required for good activity. (+info)