Inhibition of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase impairs NO.-mediated endothelium-dependent relaxations.
The superoxide anion (O-2.) appears to be an important modulator of nitric oxide (NO.) bioavailability. The present study was designed to characterize the role of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) in endothelium-dependent relaxations. Cu/Zn SOD was inhibited with the Cu2+ chelator diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DETCA). In isolated canine basilar arteries, DETCA (7.6 x 10(-3) M) inhibited total vascular SOD activity by 46% (P < 0.0001, n = 6-8 dogs). DETCA (7.6 x 10(-3) M) significantly reduced relaxations to bradykinin and A-23187 (P < 0.05, n = 7-11). The inhibitory effect of DETCA was abolished by the O-2. scavenger 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzenedisulfonic acid (Tiron; 9.4 x 10(-3) M; P < 0.05, n = 6-13). Tiron significantly potentiated the relaxations to bradykinin in control rings (P < 0.05, n = 13), and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 3 x 10(-4) M) abolished these relaxations (P < 0.0001, n = 6). DETCA and Tiron had no effect on the relaxations to diethylamine-NONOate or forskolin (P > 0.05, n = 6). Our results demonstrate that endothelium-dependent relaxations mediated by NO. are impaired after the inhibition of Cu/Zn SOD. Relaxations to bradykinin (but not A-23187) were significantly augmented by Tiron. Pharmacological scavenging of O-2. reverses the effect of Cu/Zn SOD inhibition. (+info)
Amyloid beta peptides do not form peptide-derived free radicals spontaneously, but can enhance metal-catalyzed oxidation of hydroxylamines to nitroxides.
Amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Free radical generation by Abeta peptides was suggested to be a key mechanism of their neurotoxicity. Reports that neurotoxic free radicals derived from Abeta-(1-40) and Abeta-(25-35) peptides react with the spin trap N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN) to form a PBN/.Abeta peptide radical adduct with a specific triplet ESR signal assert that the peptide itself was the source of free radicals. We now report that three Abeta peptides, Abeta-(1-40), Abeta-(25-35), and Abeta-(40-1), do not yield radical adducts with PBN from the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation (OMRF). In contrast to OMRF PBN, incubation of Sigma PBN in phosphate buffer without Abeta peptides produced a three-line ESR spectrum. It was shown that this nitroxide is di-tert-butylnitroxide and is formed in the Sigma PBN solution as a result of transition metal-catalyzed auto-oxidation of the respective hydroxylamine present as an impurity in the Sigma PBN. Under some conditions, incubation of PBN from Sigma with Abeta-(1-40) or Abeta-(25-35) can stimulate the formation of di-tert-butylnitroxide. It was shown that Abeta peptides enhanced oxidation of cyclic hydroxylamine 1-hydroxy-4-oxo-2,2,6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine (TEMPONE-H), which was strongly inhibited by the treatment of phosphate buffer with Chelex-100. It was shown that ferric and cupric ions are effective oxidants of TEMPONE-H. The data obtained allow us to conclude that under some conditions toxic Abeta peptides Abeta-(1-40) and Abeta-(25-35) enhance metal-catalyzed oxidation of hydroxylamine derivatives, but do not spontaneously form peptide-derived free radicals. (+info)
Nitric Oxide. III. A molecular prelude to intestinal inflammation.
Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis is markedly augmented in states of inflammation, largely due to the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Although NO has anti-inflammatory consequences under basal conditions, it remains enigmatic as to why NO displays proinflammatory characteristics in chronic inflammation. Either the anti-inflammatory actions are weak and of little consequence or, alternatively, other factors influence the role of NO in chronic inflammation. We propose that the answer to this enigma lies in the conversion of NO to other higher oxides of nitrogen (NO2, nitrogen dioxide; N2O3, dinitrogen trioxide; and ONOO-, peroxynitrite). Emerging therapeutic strategies may be independent of NO synthesis; e.g., antioxidants have no direct interaction with NO but attenuate the levels and activity of higher nitrogen oxides. Thus, whereas iNOS may be a marker for the proinflammatory actions of NO, the species that mediate tissue injury/dysfunction in inflammation are likely to be nitrogen oxides other than NO. (+info)
Regulation of transforming growth factor beta1 by nitric oxide.
Many tumor cells or their secreted products suppress the function of tumor-infiltrating macrophages. Tumor cells often produce abundant transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), which in addition to other immunosuppressive actions suppresses the inducible isoform of NO synthase. TGF-beta1 is secreted in a latent form, which consists of TGF-beta1 noncovalently associated with latency-associated peptide (LAP) and which can be activated efficiently by exposure to reactive oxygen species. Coculture of the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 and ANA-1 macrophages activated with IFN-gamma plus lipopolysaccharide resulted in increased synthesis and activation of latent TGF-beta1 protein by both A549 and ANA-1 cells, whereas unstimulated cultures of either cell type alone expressed only latent TGF-beta1. We investigated whether exposure of tumor cells to NO influences the production, activation, or activity of TGF-beta1.A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells exposed to the chemical NO donor diethylamine-NONOate showed increased immunoreactivity of cell-associated latent and active TGF-beta1 in a time- and dose-dependent fashion at 24-48 h after treatment. Exposure of latent TGF-beta1 to solution sources of NO neither led to recombinant latent TGF-beta1 activation nor modified recombinant TGF-beta1 activity. A novel mechanism was observed, however: treatment of recombinant LAP with NO resulted in its nitrosylation and interfered with its ability to neutralize active TGF-beta1. These results provide the first evidence that nitrosative stress influences the regulation of TGF-beta1 and raise the possibility that NO production may augment TGF-beta1 activity by modifying a naturally occurring neutralizing peptide. (+info)
Azide reduces the hydrophobic barrier of the bacteriorhodopsin proton channel.
The sensitivity of a nitroxide spin label to the polarity of its environment has been used to estimate the hydrophobic barrier of the proton channel of the transmembrane proton pump bacteriorhodopsin. By means of site-specific mutagenesis, single cysteine residues were introduced at 10 positions located at the protein surface, in the protein interior, and along the proton pathway. After reaction with a methanethiosulfonate spin label, the principle values of the hyperfine tensor A and the g-tensor were determined from electron paramagnetic resonance spectra measured at 170 K. The shape of the hydrophobic barrier of the proton channel is characterized in terms of a polarity index, DeltaA, determined from the variation of the hyperfine coupling constant Azz. The maximum of the hydrophobic barrier is found to be close to the retinal chromophore in the proton uptake pathway. The effect of the asymmetric distribution of charged and polar residues in the proton release and uptake pathways is clearly reflected in the behavior of the hydrophobic barrier. The presence of azide reduces the barrier height of both the cytoplasmic and extracellular channels. This finding supports the view of azide and other weakly acidic anions as catalysts for the formation of hydrogen-bonded networks in proton pathways of proteins. (+info)
Relationships between nitric oxide, nitroxyl ion, nitrosonium cation and peroxynitrite.
This review is concerned mainly with the three redox-related, but chemically distinct, species NO-, NO. and NO+, with greatest emphasis being placed on the chemistry and biology of the nitroxyl ion. Biochemical routes for the formation of nitroxyl ion and methods for showing the intermediacy of this species are discussed, together with chemical methods for generating nitroxyl ion in solution. Reactions of nitroxyl ion with NO., thiols, iron centres in haem and with dioxygen are reviewed The significance of the reaction between NO- and dioxygen as a source of peroxynitrite is assessed, and attention drawn to the possible significance of the spin state of the nitroxyl ion in this context. The biological significance of nitrosation and the importance of S-nitrosothiols and certain metal nitrosyl complexes as carriers of NO+ at physiological pH is stressed. Some features in the chemistry of peroxynitrite are noted. (+info)
Nitrite and nitrosyl compounds in food preservation.
Nitrite is consumed in the diet, through vegetables and drinking water. It is also added to meat products as a preservative. The potential risks of this practice are balanced against the unique protective effect against toxin-forming bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum. The chemistry of nitrite, and compounds derived from it, in food systems and bacterial cells are complex. It is known that the bactericidal species is not nitrite itself, but a compound or compounds derived from it during food preparation. Of a range of nitrosyl compounds tested, the anion of Roussin's black salt [Fe4S3(NO)7]- was the most inhibitory to C. sporogenes. This compound is active against both anaerobic and aerobic food-spoilage bacteria, while some other compounds are selective, indicating multiple sites of action. There are numerous possible targets for inhibition in the bacterial cells, including respiratory chains, iron-sulfur proteins and other metalloproteins, membranes and the genetic apparatus. (+info)
noxR3, a novel gene from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, protects Salmonella typhimurium from nitrosative and oxidative stress.
Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) produced by activated macrophages participate in host defense against the facultative intracellular pathogens Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Salmonella typhimurium. To survive within macrophages, such pathogens may have evolved ROI and RNI resistance mechanisms. ROI resistance pathways have been intensively studied. Much less is known about the mechanisms of resistance to RNI. To identify possible RNI resistance genes in M. tuberculosis, a mycobacterial library was expressed in S. typhimurium and subjected to selection by exposure to the NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) in concentrations sufficient to kill the vast majority of nontransformed salmonellae. Among the rare surviving recombinants was a clone expressing noxR3, a novel and previously anonymous M. tuberculosis gene predicted to encode a small, basic protein. Expression of noxR3 protected S. typhimurium not only from GSNO and acidified nitrite but also from H2O2. noxR3 is the third gene cloned from M. tuberculosis that has been shown to protect heterologous cells from both RNI and ROI. This suggests diversity in the repertoire of mechanisms that help pathogens resist the oxidative and nitrosative defenses of the host. (+info)