Cyclooxygenase-2 is widely expressed in atherosclerotic lesions affecting native and transplanted human coronary arteries and colocalizes with inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitrotyrosine particularly in macrophages.
Inflammation appears to have a major role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions affecting native and transplanted coronary arteries. The subsequent risk of plaque rupture and acute ischemic events correlates with the degree of inflammation and may be modified by aspirin, an anti-inflammatory cyclooxygenase inhibitor. Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) are involved in the inflammatory response via the rapid and exaggerated production of prostanoids and nitric oxide, both of which may have proatherosclerotic effects. These effects may be mediated by the formation of peroxynitrite in the case of nitric oxide and involve "cross talk" between the two enzyme systems. This study aimed to investigate native and transplant atherosclerosis for the presence and distribution of Cox-2 and iNOS. Immunocytochemical studies were performed on atherosclerotic lesions from patients with native (n=12) and transplant (n=5) coronary disease by using antibodies to Cox-2, iNOS, and nitrotyrosine (an indicator of peroxynitrite production). Control tissue was obtained from unused donor hearts and at the time of autopsy. Cox-2 and iNOS colocalized predominantly in macrophages/foam cells in both types of atherosclerosis. Cox-2 expression was also detected in medial smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells, including those of the vasa vasorum. Nitrotyrosine was found in the same distribution as that of iNOS and was colocalized with Cox-2 in macrophages. Cox-2 and iNOS are coexpressed in native and transplant atherosclerosis, possibly allowing for interaction between the enzymes and suggesting an alternative mechanism for the benefits of aspirin via inhibition of Cox-2 activity. (+info)
Role of myeloperoxidase in the neutrophil-induced oxidation of low density lipoprotein as studied by myeloperoxidase-knockout mouse.
Low density lipoprotein was oxidized by neutrophils derived from either C57BL/6 mice or myeloperoxidase (MPO)-knockout mice. The generation of superoxide from neutrophils of MPO-knockout mice was about 70% of that from wild-type mice. The extent of the oxidation of human low density lipoprotein (LDL) by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-activated neutrophils of wild-type and MPO-knockout mice was assessed by measuring consumption of a-tocopherol and formation of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH) and cholesteryl ester hydroperoxide (CEOOH). Little consumption of a-tocopherol was observed in both oxidations. It was found, however, that lipid hydroperoxides were accumulated with time in both oxidations and that the rates of formation of PCOOH and CEOOH in the oxidation by MPO-knockout neutrophils were about 66 and 44% of those by wild-type neutrophils, respectively. The lipid peroxidation was completely inhibited by adding superoxide dismutase (SOD) in both cases. The addition of L-tyrosine and SOD enhanced lipid peroxidation of LDL induced by wild-type neutrophils but not by MPO-knockout ones. These results suggest that, regardless of their MPO activity, neutrophils induce lipid peroxidation of LDL by a superoxide-dependent pathway, and that MPO-catalyzed lipid peroxidation is enhanced by the presence of an appropriate amount of free tyrosine and further enhanced by SOD. (+info)
Differential electron flow around photosystem I by two C(4)-photosynthetic-cell-specific ferredoxins.
In the C(4) plant maize (Zea mays L.), two ferredoxin isoproteins, Fd I and Fd II, are expressed specifically in mesophyll and bundle-sheath cells, respectively. cDNAs for these ferredoxins were introduced separately into the cyanobacterium Plectonema boryanum with a disrupted endogenous ferredoxin gene, yielding TM202 and KM2-9 strains expressing Fd I and Fd II. The growth of TM202 was retarded under high light (130 micromol/m(2)/s), whereas KM2-9 grew at a normal rate but exhibited a nitrogen-deficient phenotype. Measurement of photosynthetic O(2) evolution revealed that the reducing power was not efficiently partitioned into nitrogen assimilation in KM2-9. After starvation of the cells in darkness, the P700 oxidation level under far-red illumination increased significantly in TM202. However, it remained low in KM2-9, indicating an active cyclic electron flow. In accordance with this, the cellular ratio of ATP/ADP increased and that of NADPH/NADP(+) decreased in KM2-9 as compared with TM202. These results demonstrated that the two cell type-specific ferredoxins differentially modulate electron flow around photosystem I. (+info)
Altered TNF-alpha, glucose, insulin, and amino acids in islets of Langerhans cultured in a microgravity model system.
The present studies were designed to determine effects of a microgravity model system upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) activity and indexes of insulin and fuel homeostasis of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Islets (1,726 +/- 117, 150 islet equivalent units) from Wistar-Furth rats were treated as 1) high aspect ratio vessel (HARV) cell culture, 2) HARV plus LPS, 3) static culture, and 4) static culture plus LPS. TNF-alpha (L929 cytotoxicity assay) was significantly increased in LPS-induced HARV and static cultures; yet the increase was more pronounced in the static culture group (P < 0.05). A decrease in insulin concentration was demonstrated in the LPS-stimulated HARV culture (P < 0.05). We observed a greater glucose concentration and increased disappearance of arginine in islets cultured in HARVs. Although nitrogenous compound analysis indicated a ubiquitous reliance on glutamine in all experimental groups, arginine was converted to ornithine at a twofold greater rate in the islets cultured in the HARV microgravity model system (P < 0.05). These studies demonstrate alterations in LPS-induced TNF-alpha production of pancreatic islets of Langerhans, favoring a lesser TNF activity in the HARV. These alterations in fuel homeostasis may be promulgated by gravity-averaged cell culture methods or by three-dimensional cell assembly. (+info)
Structure-activity relationships for inhibition of farnesyl diphosphate synthase in vitro and inhibition of bone resorption in vivo by nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates.
It has long been known that small changes to the structure of the R(2) side chain of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates can dramatically affect their potency for inhibiting bone resorption in vitro and in vivo, although the reason for these differences in antiresorptive potency have not been explained at the level of a pharmacological target. Recently, several nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates were found to inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone resorption in vitro by inhibiting farnesyl diphosphate synthase, thereby preventing protein prenylation in osteoclasts. In this study, we examined the potency of a wider range of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates, including the highly potent, heterocycle-containing zoledronic acid and minodronate (YM-529). We found a clear correlation between the ability to inhibit farnesyl diphosphate synthase in vitro, to inhibit protein prenylation in cell-free extracts and in purified osteoclasts in vitro, and to inhibit bone resorption in vivo. The activity of recombinant human farnesyl diphosphate synthase was inhibited at concentrations > or = 1 nM zoledronic acid or minodronate, the order of potency (zoledronic acid approximately equal to minodronate > risedronate > ibandronate > incadronate > alendronate > pamidronate) closely matching the order of antiresorptive potency. Furthermore, minor changes to the structure of the R(2) side chain of heterocycle-containing bisphosphonates, giving rise to less potent inhibitors of bone resorption in vivo, also caused a reduction in potency up to approximately 300-fold for inhibition of farnesyl diphosphate synthase in vitro. These data indicate that farnesyl diphosphate synthase is the major pharmacological target of these drugs in vivo, and that small changes to the structure of the R(2) side chain alter antiresorptive potency by affecting the ability to inhibit farnesyl diphosphate synthase. (+info)
Nitrogen uptake by wheat seedlings, interactive effects of four nitrogen sources: NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, and urea.
The net influx (uptake) rates of NO3-, NH4+, NO2-, and urea into roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Yecora Rojo) seedlings from complete nutrient solutions containing all four compounds were monitored simultaneously. Although urea uptake was too slow to monitor, its presence had major inhibitory effects on the uptake of each of the other compounds. Rates of NO3-, NH4+, and NO2- uptake depended in a complex fashion on the concentration of all four N compounds. Equations were developed which describe the uptake rates of each of the compounds, and of total N, as functions of concentrations of all N sources. Contour plots of the results show the interactions over the range of concentrations employed. The coefficients of these equations provide quantitative values for evaluating primary and interactive effects of each compound on N uptake. (+info)
Effects of P(SAG12)-IPT gene expression on development and senescence in transgenic lettuce.
An ipt gene under control of the senescence-specific SAG12 promoter from Arabidopsis (P(SAG12)-IPT) significantly delayed developmental and postharvest leaf senescence in mature heads of transgenic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv Evola) homozygous for the transgene. Apart from retardation of leaf senescence, mature, 60-d-old plants exhibited normal morphology with no significant differences in head diameter or fresh weight of leaves and roots. Induction of senescence by nitrogen starvation rapidly reduced total nitrogen, nitrate, and growth of transgenic and azygous (control) plants, but chlorophyll was retained in the lower (outer) leaves of transgenic plants. Harvested P(SAG12)-IPT heads also retained chlorophyll in their lower leaves. During later development (bolting and preflowering) of transgenic plants, the decrease in chlorophyll, total protein, and Rubisco content in leaves was abolished, resulting in a uniform distribution of these components throughout the plants. Homozygous P(SAG12)-IPT lettuce plants showed a slight delay in bolting (4-6 d), a severe delay in flowering (4-8 weeks), and premature senescence of their upper leaves. These changes correlated with significantly elevated concentrations of cytokinin and hexoses in the upper leaves of transgenic plants during later stages of development, implicating a relationship between cytokinin and hexose concentrations in senescence. (+info)
Differential roles of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 rpoN gene in pathogenicity in plants, nematodes, insects, and mice.
We cloned the rpoN (ntrA, glnF) gene encoding the alternate sigma factor sigma(54) from the opportunistic multihost pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14. A marker exchange protocol was used to construct the PA14 rpoN insertional mutation rpoN::Gen(r). PA14 rpoN::Gen(r) synthesized reduced levels of pyocyanin and displayed a variety of phenotypes typical of rpoN mutants, including a lack of motility and the failure to grow on nitrate, glutamate, or histidine as the sole nitrogen source. Compared to wild-type PA14, rpoN::Gen(r) was ca. 100-fold less virulent in a mouse thermal injury model and was significantly impaired in its ability to kill the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In an Arabidopsis thaliana leaf infectivity assay, although rpoN::Gen(r) exhibited significantly reduced attachment to trichomes, stomata, and the epidermal cell surface, did not attach perpendicularly to or perforate mesophyll cell walls, and proliferated less rapidly in Arabidopsis leaves, it nevertheless elicited similar disease symptoms to wild-type P. aeruginosa PA14 at later stages of infection. rpoN::Gen(r) was not impaired in virulence in a Galleria mellonella (greater wax moth) pathogenicity model. These data indicate that rpoN does not regulate the expression of any genes that encode virulence factors universally required for P. aeruginosa pathogenicity in diverse hosts. (+info)