(1/214) Dissimilatory reduction of Fe(III) and other electron acceptors by a Thermus isolate.
A thermophilic bacterium that can use O2, NO3-, Fe(III), and S0 as terminal electron acceptors for growth was isolated from groundwater sampled at a 3.2-km depth in a South African gold mine. This organism, designated SA-01, clustered most closely with members of the genus Thermus, as determined by 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) sequence analysis. The 16S rDNA sequence of SA-01 was >98% similar to that of Thermus strain NMX2 A.1, which was previously isolated by other investigators from a thermal spring in New Mexico. Strain NMX2 A.1 was also able to reduce Fe(III) and other electron acceptors. Neither SA-01 nor NMX2 A.1 grew fermentatively, i.e., addition of an external electron acceptor was required for anaerobic growth. Thermus strain SA-01 reduced soluble Fe(III) complexed with citrate or nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA); however, it could reduce only relatively small quantities (0.5 mM) of hydrous ferric oxide except when the humic acid analog 2,6-anthraquinone disulfonate was added as an electron shuttle, in which case 10 mM Fe(III) was reduced. Fe(III)-NTA was reduced quantitatively to Fe(II); reduction of Fe(III)-NTA was coupled to the oxidation of lactate and supported growth through three consecutive transfers. Suspensions of Thermus strain SA-01 cells also reduced Mn(IV), Co(III)-EDTA, Cr(VI), and U(VI). Mn(IV)-oxide was reduced in the presence of either lactate or H2. Both strains were also able to mineralize NTA to CO2 and to couple its oxidation to Fe(III) reduction and growth. The optimum temperature for growth and Fe(III) reduction by Thermus strains SA-01 and NMX2 A.1 is approximately 65 degrees C; their optimum pH is 6.5 to 7.0. This is the first report of a Thermus sp. being able to couple the oxidation of organic compounds to the reduction of Fe, Mn, or S. (+info)
(2/214) The hereditary hemochromatosis protein, HFE, specifically regulates transferrin-mediated iron uptake in HeLa cells.
HFE is the protein product of the gene mutated in the autosomal recessive disease hereditary hemochromatosis (Feder, J. N., Gnirke, A., Thomas, W., Tsuchihashi, Z., Ruddy, D. A., Basava, A., Dormishian, F., Domingo, R. J., Ellis, M. C., Fullan, A., Hinton, L. M., Jones, N. L., Kimmel, B. E., Kronmal, G. S., Lauer, P., Lee, V. K., Loeb, D. B., Mapa, F. A., McClelland, E., Meyer, N. C., Mintier, G. A., Moeller, N., Moore, T., Morikang, E., Prasss, C. E., Quintana, L., Starnes, S. M., Schatzman, R. C., Brunke, K. J., Drayna, D. T., Risch, N. J., Bacon, B. R., and Wolff, R. R. (1996) Nat. Genet. 13, 399-408). At the cell surface, HFE complexes with transferrin receptor (TfR), increasing the dissociation constant of transferrin (Tf) for its receptor 10-fold (Gross, C. N., Irrinki, A., Feder, J. N., and Enns, C. A. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 22068-22074; Feder, J. N., Penny, D. M., Irrinki, A., Lee, V. K., Lebron, J. A., Watson, N. , Tsuchihashi, Z., Sigal, E., Bjorkman, P. J., and Schatzman, R. C. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 95, 1472-1477). HFE does not remain at the cell surface, but traffics with TfR to Tf-positive internal compartments (Gross et al., 1998). Using a HeLa cell line in which the expression of HFE is controlled by tetracycline, we show that the expression of HFE reduces 55Fe uptake from Tf by 33% but does not affect the endocytic or exocytic rates of TfR cycling. Therefore, HFE appears to reduce cellular acquisition of iron from Tf within endocytic compartments. HFE specifically reduces iron uptake from Tf, as non-Tf-mediated iron uptake from Fe-nitrilotriacetic acid is not altered. These results explain the decreased ferritin levels seen in our HeLa cell system and demonstrate the specific control of HFE over the Tf-mediated pathway of iron uptake. These results also have implications for the understanding of cellular iron homeostasis in organs such as the liver, pancreas, heart, and spleen that are iron loaded in hereditary hemochromatotic individuals lacking functional HFE. (+info)
(3/214) Nordihydroguairetic acid is a potent inhibitor of ferric-nitrilotriacetate-mediated hepatic and renal toxicity, and renal tumour promotion, in mice.
Ferric-nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) is a known renal carcinogen. In the present study, we report the effect of a potent lignin-derived herbal antioxidant, nordihydroguairetic acid (NDGA), against Fe-NTA-mediated tissue toxicity. Fe-NTA (alone) treatment of mice enhances ornithine decarboxylase activity to 259% in liver and 341% in kidney and increases [3H]thymidine incorporation in DNA to 250% in liver and 324% in kidney compared with the corresponding saline-treated controls. The enhanced ornithine decarboxylase activity and DNA synthesis showed a reduction to 138 and 123%, respectively, in liver at a higher dose of 2 mg NDGA/day/animal whereas in kidney the reduction was to 118 and 102%, respectively, compared with the corresponding saline-treated controls. In the Fe-NTA (alone)-treated group, a 12% renal tumour incidence was recorded whereas, in N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-initiated and Fe-NTA-promoted animals, the percentage tumour incidence was increased to 68% as compared with untreated controls. No tumour incidence was recorded in the DEN-initiated, non-promoted group. The administration of NDGA, afforded >80% protection against DEN- and Fe-NTA-mediated renal tissue injury in vivo. Fe-NTA treatment also enhanced hepatic and renal microsomal lipid peroxidation to 170 and 205% of saline-treated controls, respectively, and hydrogen peroxide generation by >2.5-fold in both tissues accompanied by a 51 and 21% decrease in the level of glutathione and 35-48 and 35-50% decrease in the activities of glutathione-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in liver and kidney, respectively. These changes were reversed significantly in animals receiving a pre-treatment of NDGA. Our data show that NDGA can abrogate the toxic and tumour-promoting effects of Fe-NTA in liver and kidney of mice and can serve as a potent chemopreventive agent to suppress oxidant-induced tissue injury and tumorigenesis. (+info)
(4/214) Analysis of 8-hydroxyguanine in rat kidney genomic DNA after administration of a renal carcinogen, ferric nitrilotriacetate.
The frequency of oxidative base damage, such as 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OH-Gua), was determined at the nucleotide level of resolution using the ligation-mediated PCR technique. Administration of a renal carcinogen, ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA), is known to induce oxidative stress and subsequent formation of 8-OH-Gua in the rat kidney. Whole genomic DNA was isolated from the rat kidney after or without Fe-NTA treatment and then cleaved with hot piperidine. In order to assess the frequency of 8-OH-Gua formation, we chose three genes, the tumor suppressor gene p53, the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70-1) gene and the Na,K-ATPase alpha1 subunit gene. No alteration in the cleavage profile was observed in the p53 and HSP70 genes after Fe-NTA treatment. In the case of the p53 gene, a low incidence of point mutations has been observed in this carcinogenesis system. On the other hand, time-dependent alterations, corresponding to the time course of overall 8-OH-Gua formation and repair, were detected in the promoter region of the Na,K-ATPase alpha1 subunit gene. GpG and GpGpG in specific regions seem to be hotspots for the formation of 8-OH-Gua. These results were confirmed by formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase-dependent DNA cleavage patterns. Thus, oxidative base damage, such as 8-OH-Gua, was not distributed uniformly along the whole genome, but seemed to be restricted to particular genes and regions. (+info)
(5/214) High incidence of allelic loss on chromosome 5 and inactivation of p15INK4B and p16INK4A tumor suppressor genes in oxystress-induced renal cell carcinoma of rats.
Ferric nitrilotriacetate induces oxidative damage in renal proximal tubules, a consequence of Fenton-like reaction, that ultimately leads to a high incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in rats. In order to find common genetic alterations in this oxystress-induced carcinogenesis model, RCCs were produced in F1 hybrid rats between Wistar and Long-Evans strains and genomes were screened for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) with microsatellite polymorphic markers by PCR. Five consecutive markers on chromosome 5 (D5Mgh5, D5Mit9, D5Mgh6, D5Mit11 and D5Mit6) showed LOH in >40% of the RCCs. As possible candidate tumor suppressor genes on chromosome 5, p15INK4B and p16INK4A were investigated for genetic alteration and aberrant methylation by Southern blot, PCR/SSCP/ sequencing and methylation-specific PCR. Genetic alteration (homozygous or hemizygous deletion with or without point mutation) or aberrant methylation were found in 30.7 and 53.8% of the RCC cases, respectively, which was proportionally associated with the histological nuclear grade and metastatic activity. Our data suggest that inactivation of p15 and p16 genes could be one of the major pathways responsible for oxystress-induced carcinogenesis. (+info)
(6/214) 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal-mediated impairment of intracellular proteolysis during oxidative stress. Identification of proteasomes as target molecules.
Oxidative stress is associated with important pathophysiological events in a variety of diseases. It has been postulated that free radicals and lipid peroxidation products generated during the process may be responsible for these effects because of their ability to damage cellular components such as membranes, proteins, and DNA. In the present study, we provide evidence that oxidative stress causes a transient impairment of intracellular proteolysis via covalent binding of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), a major end product of lipid peroxidation, to proteasomes. A single intraperitoneal treatment with the renal carcinogen, ferric nitrilotriacetate, caused oxidative stress, as monitored by accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, in the kidney of mice. In addition, transient accumulation of HNE-modified proteins in the kidney was also found by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemical analyses. This and the observation that the HNE-modified proteins were significantly ubiquitinated suggested a crucial role of proteasomes in the metabolism of HNE-modified proteins. In vitro incubation of the kidney homogenates with HNE indeed resulted in a transient accumulation of HNE-modified proteins, whereas the proteasome inhibitor significantly suppressed the time-dependent elimination of HNE-modified proteins. We found that, among three proteolytic activities (trypsin, chymotrypsin, and peptidylglutamyl peptide hydrolase activities) of proteasomes, both trypsin and peptidylglutamyl peptide hydrolase activities in the kidney were transiently diminished in accordance with the accumulation of HNE-modified proteins during oxidative stress. The loss of proteasome activities was partially ascribed to the direct attachment of HNE to the protein, based on the detection of HNE-proteasome conjugates by an immunoprecipitation technique. These results suggest that HNE may contribute to the enhanced accumulation of oxidatively modified proteins via an impairment of ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent intracellular proteolysis. (+info)
(7/214) Engrafting costimulator molecules onto tumor cell surfaces with chelator lipids: a potentially convenient approach in cancer vaccine development.
The genetic modification of cells to develop cell-based vaccines and to modulate immune responses in vivo can be risky and inconvenient to perform in clinical situations. A novel chelator lipid, nitrilotriacetic acid di-tetradecylamine (NTA-DTDA) that, via the NTA group has high affinity for 6His peptide, was used to directly anchor recombinant forms of T cell costimulatory molecules containing a C-terminal 6-His sequence onto tumor cell surfaces. Initial experiments using murine P815 tumor cells established the optimum conditions for incorporating NTA-DTDA onto the membranes of cells. P815 cells with incorporated NTA-DTDAbound hexahistidine-(6His)-tagged forms of the extracellular domains of murine B7.1 and CD40 (B7.1-6H and CD40-6H) at very high levels (fluorescence 200-300-fold above background), and both proteins could be anchored onto the cells simultaneously. Significant loss of the anchored or "engrafted" protein occurred through membrane internalization following culture of the cells under physiological conditions, but P815 cells with engrafted B7.1-6H and/or CD40-6H stimulated the proliferation of allogenic and syngeneic splenic T cells in vitro, and generated cytotoxic T cells when used as vaccines in syngeneic animals. Furthermore, the immunization of syngeneic mice with P815 cells engrafted with B7.1-6H or with B7. 1-6H and CD40-6H induced protection against challenge with the native P815 tumor. The results indicate that the use of chelator lipids like NTD-DTDA to engraft costimulatory and/or other molecules onto cell membranes could provide a convenient alternative to transfection in the development of cell-based vaccines and for modulation of immune function. (+info)
(8/214) Anion-mediated iron release from transferrins. The kinetic and mechanistic model for N-lobe of ovotransferrin.
Iron release process of ovotransferrin N-lobe (N-oTf) to anion/chelators has been resolved using kinetic and mechanistic approach. The iron release kinetics of N-oTf were measured at the endosomal pH of 5.6 with three different anions such as nitrilotriacetate, pyrophosphate, and sulfate using stopped flow spectrofluorimetric method, all yielding clear biphasic progress curves. The two observed rate constants and the corresponding amplitudes obtained from the double exponential curve fit to the biphasic curves varied depending on the type and concentration of anions. Several possible models for the iron release kinetic mechanism were examined on the basis of a newly introduced quantitative equation. Results from the curve fitting analyses were consistent with a dual pathway mechanism that includes the competitive iron release from two different protein states, namely, X and Y, with the respective first order rate constants of K(1) and K(2) (X, domain closed holo N-oTf; Y, anion induced different conformer of holo N-oTf). The reversible interconversions of X to Y and Y to X are driven by the second order rate constant k(3) and the first order rate constant K(4), respectively. The obtained rate constants were greatly variable for the three anions depending on the synergistic or nonsynergistic nature. In the light of the anion-binding sites of N-oTf located crystallographically, the compatible mechanistic model that includes competitive anion binding to the iron coordination sites and to a specific anion site is suggested for the dual pathway iron release mechanism. (+info)