A golden hamster model for human acute Nipah virus infection.
A predominantly pig-to-human zoonotic infection caused by the novel Nipah virus emerged recently to cause severe morbidity and mortality in both animals and man. Human autopsy studies showed the pathogenesis to be related to systemic vasculitis that led to widespread thrombotic occlusion and microinfarction in most major organs especially in the central nervous system. There was also evidence of extravascular parenchymal infection, particularly near damaged vessels (Wong KT, Shieh WJ, Kumar S, Norain K, Abdullah W, Guarner J, Goldsmith CS, Chua KB, Lam SK, Tan CT, Goh KJ, Chong HT, Jusoh R, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, Zaki SR, Nipah Virus Pathology Working Group: Nipah virus infection: Pathology and pathogenesis of an emerging paramyxoviral zoonosis. Am J Pathol 2002, 161:2153-2167). We describe here a golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) model that appears to reproduce the pathology and pathogenesis of acute human Nipah infection. Hamsters infected by intranasal or intraperitoneal routes died within 9 to 29 days or 5 to 9 days, respectively. Pathological lesions were most severe and extensive in the hamster brain. Vasculitis, thrombosis, and more rarely, multinucleated endothelial syncytia, were found in blood vessels of multiple organs. Viral antigen and RNA were localized in both vascular and extravascular tissues including neurons, lung, kidney, and spleen, as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, respectively. Paramyxoviral-type nucleocapsids were identified in neurons and in vessel walls. At the terminal stage of infection, virus and/or viral RNA could be recovered from most solid organs and urine, but not from serum. The golden hamster is proposed as a suitable model for further studies including pathogenesis studies, anti-viral drug testing, and vaccine development against acute Nipah infection. (+info)
Nipah virus: vaccination and passive protection studies in a hamster model.
Nipah virus, a member of the paramyxovirus family, was first isolated and identified in 1999 when the virus crossed the species barrier from fruit bats to pigs and then infected humans, inducing an encephalitis with up to 40% mortality. At present there is no prophylaxis for Nipah virus. We investigated the possibility of vaccination and passive transfer of antibodies as interventions against this disease. We show that both of the Nipah virus glycoproteins (G and F) when expressed as vaccinia virus recombinants induced an immune response in hamsters which protected against a lethal challenge by Nipah virus. Similarly, passive transfer of antibody induced by either of the glycoproteins protected the animals. In both the active and passive immunization studies, however, the challenge virus was capable of hyperimmunizing the vaccinated animals, suggesting that although the virus replicates under these conditions, the immune system can eventually control the infection. (+info)
Nipah virus conforms to the rule of six in a minigenome replication assay.
To study the replication of Nipah virus (NiV), a minigenome replication assay that does not require the use of infectious virus was developed. The minigenome was constructed to encode a NiV vRNA analogue containing the gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) under the control of putative NiV transcription motifs and flanked by the NiV genomic termini. CAT protein was detected only when plasmids encoding the NiV minigenome, nucleocapsid protein (N), phosphoprotein (P) and polymerase protein (L) were transfected into CV1 cells. To determine whether NiV conforms to the rule of six, a series of plasmids encoding minigenomes that differed in length by a single nucleotide was tested in the replication assay. CAT production was detected only with the minigenome whose length was an even multiple of six. The replication assay was also used to show that the N, P and L proteins of NiV recognize cis-acting sequences in the genomic termini of Hendra virus (HeV) but not measles virus. While these results suggest that NiV uses a replication strategy that is similar to those of other paramyxoviruses, they also support the inclusion of NiV and HeV in a separate genus within the subfamily Paramyxovirinae. (+info)
Identification of the nuclear export signal and STAT-binding domains of the Nipah virus V protein reveals mechanisms underlying interferon evasion.
The V proteins of Nipah virus and Hendra virus have been demonstrated to bind to cellular STAT1 and STAT2 proteins to form high-molecular-weight complexes that inhibit interferon (IFN)-induced antiviral transcription by preventing STAT nuclear accumulation. Analysis of the Nipah virus V protein has revealed a region between amino acids 174 and 192 that functions as a CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal (NES). This peptide is sufficient to complement an export-defective human immunodeficiency virus Rev protein, and deletion and substitution mutagenesis revealed that this peptide is necessary for both V protein shuttling and cytoplasmic retention of STAT1 and STAT2 proteins. However, the NES is not required for V-dependent IFN signaling inhibition. IFN signaling is blocked primarily by interaction between Nipah virus V residues 100 to 160 and STAT1 residues 509 to 712. Interaction with STAT2 requires a larger Nipah virus V segment between amino acids 100 and 300, but deletion of residues 230 to 237 greatly reduced STAT2 coprecipitation. Further, V protein interactions with cellular STAT1 is a prerequisite for STAT2 binding, and sequential immunoprecipitations demonstrate that V, STAT1, and STAT2 can form a tripartite complex. These findings characterize essential regions for Henipavirus V proteins that represent potential targets for therapeutic intervention. (+info)
Nipah virus V and W proteins have a common STAT1-binding domain yet inhibit STAT1 activation from the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments, respectively.
In previous reports it was demonstrated that the Nipah virus V and W proteins have interferon (IFN) antagonist activity due to their ability to block signaling from the IFN-alpha/beta receptor (J. J. Rodriguez, J. P. Parisien, and C. M. Horvath, J. Virol. 76:11476-11483, 2002; M. S. Park et al., J. Virol. 77:1501-1511, 2003). The V, W, and P proteins are all encoded by the same viral gene and share an identical 407-amino-acid N-terminal region but have distinct C-terminal sequences. We now show that the P protein also has anti-IFN function, confirming that the common N-terminal domain is responsible for the antagonist activity. Truncation of this N-terminal domain revealed that amino acids 50 to 150 retain the ability to block IFN and to bind STAT1, a key component of the IFN signaling pathway. Subcellular localization studies demonstrate that the V and P proteins are predominantly cytoplasmic whereas the W protein is localized to the nucleus. In all cases, STAT1 colocalizes with the corresponding Nipah virus protein. These interactions are sufficient to inhibit STAT1 activation, as demonstrated by the lack of STAT1 phosphorylation on tyrosine 701 in IFN-stimulated cells expressing P, V, or W. Therefore, despite their common STAT1-binding domain, the Nipah virus V and P proteins act by retaining STAT1 in the cytoplasm while the W protein sequesters STAT1 in the nucleus, creating both a cytoplasmic and a nuclear block for STAT1. We also show that the IFN antagonist activity of the P protein is not as strong as that of V or W, perhaps explaining why Nipah virus has evolved to express these two edited products. (+info)
Influence of N-glycans on processing and biological activity of the nipah virus fusion protein.
Nipah virus (NiV), a new member of the Paramyxoviridae, codes for a fusion (F) protein with five potential N-glycosylation sites. Because glycans are known to be important structural components affecting the conformation and function of viral glycoproteins, we analyzed the effect of the deletion of N-linked oligosaccharides on cell surface transport, proteolytic cleavage, and the biological activity of the NiV F protein. Each of the five potential glycosylation sites was removed either individually or in combination, revealing that four sites are actually utilized (g2 and g3 in the F(2) subunit and g4 and g5 in the F(1) subunit). While the removal of g2 and/or g3 had no or little effect on cleavage, surface transport, and fusion activity, the elimination of g4 or g5 reduced the surface expression by more than 80%. Similar to a mutant lacking all N-glycans, g4 deletion mutants in which the potential glycosylation site was destroyed by introducing a glycine residue were neither cleaved nor transported to the cell surface and consequently were not able to mediate cell-to-cell fusion. This finding indicates that in the absence of g4, the amino acid sequence around position 414 is important for folding and transport. (+info)
Ubiquitous activation of the Nipah virus fusion protein does not require a basic amino acid at the cleavage site.
Nipah virus (NiV), a highly pathogenic paramyxovirus, causes a systemic infection in vivo and is able to replicate in cultured cells of many species and organs. Such pantropic paramyxoviruses generally encode fusion (F) proteins with multibasic cleavage sites activated by furin or other ubiquitous intracellular host cell proteases. In contrast, NiV has an F protein with a single arginine (R109) at the cleavage site, as is the case with paramyxoviruses that are activated by trypsin-like proteases only present in specific cells or tissues and therefore only cause localized infections. Unlike these viruses, cleavage of the NiV F protein is ubiquitous and does not require the addition of exogenous proteases in cell culture. To determine the importance of the amino acid sequence at the NiV F protein cleavage site for ubiquitous activation, we generated NiV F proteins with mutations around R109. Surprisingly, neither the exchange of amino acids upstream of R109 nor replacement of the basic residue itself interfered with F cleavage. Thus, R109 is not essential for F cleavage and activation. Our data demonstrate that NiV F-protein activation depends on a novel type of proteolytic cleavage that has not yet been described for any other paramyxovirus F protein. NiV F activation is mediated by a ubiquitous protease that requires neither a monobasic nor a multibasic cleavage site and therefore differs from the furin- or trypsin-like proteases known to activate other ortho- and paramyxovirus fusion proteins. (+info)
Reactivity of anti-Nipah virus monoclonal antibodies to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung tissues from experimental Nipah and Hendra virus infections.
The immunohistochemical reactivity of seven clones of mouse monoclonal antibodies raised to Nipah virus antigens were investigated using formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded porcine and equine lung tissues from experimental Nipah and Hendra virus infection, respectively. Either microwave irradiation or enzymatic digestion effectively unmasked the viral antigens in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Four clones showed positive reaction to both Nipah virus-infected porcine lung tissue and Hendra virus-infected equine lung tissue. Two clones (11F6 and 13A5) reacted with Nipah virus-infected porcine lung tissue, but not with Hendra virus-infected equine lung tissue. These Nipah virus-specific monoclonal antibodies may therefore be useful for immunohistological diagnosis of Nipah virus infection and for further research on Nipah virus pathogenesis. (+info)