Pathogenesis of cancrum oris (noma): confounding interactions of malnutrition with infection.
This study showed that impoverished Nigerian children at risk for cancrum oris (noma) had significantly reduced plasma concentrations of zinc (< 10.8 micromol/L), retinol (< 1.05 micromol/L), ascorbate (< 11 micromol/L), and the essential amino acids, with prominently increased plasma and saliva levels of free cortisol, compared with their healthy counterparts. The nutrient deficiencies, in concert with previously reported widespread viral infections (measles, herpesviruses) in the children, would impair oral mucosal immunity. We postulate, subject to additional studies, that evolution of the oral mucosal ulcers including acute necrotizing gingivitis to noma is triggered by a consortium of microorganisms of which Fusobacterium necrophorum is a key component. Fusobacterium necrophorum elaborates several dermonecrotic toxic metabolites and is acquired by the impoverished children via fecal contamination resulting from shared residential facilities with animals and very poor environmental sanitation. (+info)
Maximum-likelihood generalized heritability estimate for blood pressure in Nigerian families.
Elevated blood pressure (BP) is more common in relatives of hypertensives than in relatives of normotensives, indicating familial resemblance of the BP phenotypes. Most published studies have been conducted in westernized societies. To assess the ability to generalize these estimates, we examined familial patterns of BP in a population-based sample of 510 nuclear families, including 1552 individuals (320 fathers, 370 mothers, 475 sons, and 387 daughters) from Ibadan, Nigeria. The prevalence of obesity in this community is low (body mass index: fathers, 21.6; mothers, 23.6; sons, 19.2; and daughters=21.0 kg/m2). The BP phenotype used in all analyses was created from the best regression model by standardizing the age-adjusted systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) to 0 mean and unit variance. Heritability was estimated by use of the computer program SEGPATH from the most parsimonious model of "no spouse and neither gender nor generation difference" as 45% for SBP and 43% for DBP. The lack of a significant spouse correlation is consistent with little or no influence of the common familial environment. However, the heritability estimate of <50% for both SBP and DBPs reinforces the importance of the nonshared environmental effect. (+info)
A management information system for nurse/midwives.
The experiences of nurse/midwives with a simple management information system in the private sector are reported from four facilities in Nigeria. When such a system is being introduced, special attention should be given to strengthening the ability of health workers to record and collate data satisfactorily. (+info)
Gonococcal urethral stricture and watering-can perineum.
A total of sixteen patients with urethral stricture and/or perineal urinary fistulae (water-can perineum) complicating gonorrhoea were seen at the Special Treatment Clinic, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. The patients were aged between 25 and 80 years, and the latent period between the time of original attack of gonococcal infection and the development of complications varied from 4 to 50 years. The rate of divorce or marital separation is high among these patients with late sequelae of gonorrhoea. The factors responsible for the present higher incidence of early and late complications of gonorrhoea among patients in Nigeria and other tropical countries compared with their counterparts in Europe and North American include: (a) Lack of medical facilities in most rural areas; (b) Inadequate treatment of veneral diseases, including the urban areas where self-medication is practised on a large scale by the general population; (c) Illiteracy and ignorance of venereal diseases. The cases of watering-can perineum reported here, and the subsequent chronic pyelonephritis and hypertension, reinforce the plea for early and energetic treatment of acute gonorrhoea in Africa as well as large-scale control measures by the health authorities. (+info)
Donor funding for health reform in Africa: is non-project assistance the right prescription?
During the past 10 years, donors have recognized the need for major reforms to achieve sustainable development. Using non-project assistance they have attempted to leverage reforms by offering financing conditioned on the enactment of reform. The experience of USAID's health reform programmes in Niger and Nigeria suggest these programmes have proved more difficult to implement than expected. When a country has in place a high level of fiscal accountability and high institutional capacity, programmes of conditioned non-project assistance may be more effective in achieving reforms than traditional project assistance. However, when these elements are lacking, as they were in Niger, non-project assistance offers nothing inherently superior than traditional project assistance. Non-project assistance may be most effective for assisting the implementation of policy reforms adopted by the host government. (+info)
Sales practices of patent medicine sellers in Nigeria.
A survey was carried out among patent medicine dealers to evaluate their practices that militate against laws governing prescriptions-only medicines in Nigeria. Questionnaires were distributed to 46 patent medicine dealers and later collected from them on appointment. Analysis of the results showed that all the patent medicine dealers were aware of the law governing the sale of prescription drugs in Nigeria. Seventy-five per cent of them stock such drugs. Patent medicine dealers obtain their drugs largely from sales representative of pharmaceutical companies as well as from industries. Inappropriate use of sales boys and girls in patent medicine stores and defective government policies were all investigated. (+info)
Maintaining compliance to ivermectin in communities in two West African countries.
We have investigated various aspects related to managing wide-scale ivermectin distribution schemes within randomized controlled trials in communities where onchocerciasis is endemic. Multiple logistic regression analysis of determinants of compliance to five doses of ivermectin in 589 people in Sierra Leone showed independent significant associations with leopard skin depigmentation, the severity of side effects of treatment, fulfilling the exclusion criteria for treatment, and long-term residence in the community. These results are useful for tailoring health promotion messages in Sierra Leone, but the associations may differ in other West African societies. In Nigeria 1847 people were interviewed about various subjective responses, including itching. None of these showed clear improvement after three years of ivermectin treatment. Positive comments about treatment were generally non-specific and similar in the placebo and ivermectin groups. Negative comments were usually related to adverse reactions, especially itching and rash, and were more common after ivermectin. The lack of any benefit attributable to ivermectin that is discernible to its recipients may make it difficult to maintain the high compliance rates needed for long periods if mass dosing programmes are to have a lasting impact on onchocerciasis. In addition, no consistent effects of ivermectin were found by measuring visual acuity, height, weight or haematocrit in comparison with placebo. This may indicate that evidence of clinical impact is very slow to develop and is hard to measure using simple objective methods after only three doses of treatment. At present it seems that parasitological, entomological and detailed ophthalmological or dermatological methods are required to demonstrate the impact of ivermectin treatment in the medium-term. (+info)
Monitoring community response to malaria control using insecticide-impregnated bed nets, curtains and residual spray at Nsukka, Nigeria.
A project testing the efficacy of insecticide (permethrin)-impregnated bed nets, compared with impregnated door and window curtains, residual house spraying, and a control group was implemented in 12 village clusters in the Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria, using epidemiologic and entomologic indicators. The appropriate materials and services were given free to all families. During the first year of study, three monitoring exercises were carried out in a random selection of homes where children under 5 years of age resided. Information was collected on perceived effectiveness of the interventions, condition of nets and curtains, reasons for not sleeping under nets, and recall of steps required in caring for nets and curtains. Bed nets were perceived as more effective in reducing mosquito bites compared with the two other interventions. At the last monitoring period, which occurred a few weeks before a re-impregnation exercise, respondents also perceived bed nets to be most effective in preventing malaria. These findings coincided with epidemiologic evidence. Curtains, especially those at doors, were more likely to be torn and dirty than bed nets. Although holes would not reduce the effectiveness of the insecticide, they could reduce the 'beauty' of the curtains, a perceived benefit that initially attracted villagers to both curtains and nets. Bed net owners reported significantly less frequent use of other mosquito control measures in their homes than did members of the other groups. Finally, bed net users demonstrated increased knowledge of use and care steps than did those with curtains. These findings suggested a high level of social acceptability of bed nets, and point to the need to test their acceptability further under conditions where people would pay for nets and communities would manage distribution and re-impregnation systems. (+info)