Amino acid substitutions in a conserved region in the stalk of the Newcastle disease virus HN glycoprotein spike impair its neuraminidase activity in the globular domain.
The ectodomain of the paramyxovirus haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein spike can be divided into two regions: a membrane-proximal, stalk-like structure and a terminal globular domain. The latter contains all the antibody recognition sites of the protein, as well as its receptor recognition and neuraminidase (NA) active sites. These two activities of the protein can be separated by monoclonal antibody functional inhibition studies and mutations in the globular domain. Herein, we show that mutation of several conserved residues in the stalk of the Newcastle disease virus HN protein markedly decrease its NA activity without a significant effect on receptor recognition. Thus, mutations in the stalk, distant from the NA active site in the globular domain, can also separate attachment and NA. These results add to an increasing body of evidence that the NA activity of this protein is dependent on an intact stalk structure. (+info)
Pathogenesis of Newcastle disease in chickens experimentally infected with viruses of different virulence.
Groups of 4-week-old White Rock chickens were inoculated intraconjunctivally with nine isolates of Newcastle disease virus representing all pathotypes. Birds were monitored clinically and euthanatized sequentially, with collection of tissues for histopathologic examination and in situ hybridization using an anti-sense digoxigenin-labeled riboprobe corresponding to the sequence of the gene coding for the matrix protein. Disease was most severe with velogenic viscerotropic pathotypes and was characterized by acute systemic illness with extensive necrosis of lymphoid areas in the spleen and intestine. Viral nucleic acid was detected in multiple tissues but most prominently in macrophages associated with lymphoid tissue. Velogenic neurotropic isolates caused central nervous system disease despite minimal amounts of viral nucleic acid detected in neural tissue. Mesogenic and lentogenic pathotypes caused no overt disease; however, viral nucleic acid was present in myocardium and air sac epithelium following infection with these isolates. Compromise of air sac and myocardium may predispose mesogen- and lentogen-infected chickens to secondary infection and/or decreased meat and egg production. (+info)
Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the F gene of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from chickens and an owl in Taiwan.
To provide information on the epidemiology of Newcastle disease (ND) of poultry in Taiwan, ND virus isolates from chickens and an owl were investigated by restriction site analysis and sequencing of their gene. A 1,349 base fragment of the F (fusion protein) gene was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The PCR products were analyzed using restriction endonucleases, HinfI, BstOI, and RsaI. Three strains isolated from chickens during the 1995 epidemic outbreak had the same restriction sites as that of a 1994 isolate; the number of the restriction sites of HinfI, BstOI, and RsaI were 4, 2, and 4, respectively. In the F gene of the strain isolated from an owl during the same outbreak an additional restriction site of HinfI was found. The 1991 isolate had only 3 restriction sites. The F gene of the owl isolate was amplified by RT-PCR and followed by direct sequencing. The deduced amino acid sequence at the cleavage site of the F protein was of virulent strains, 112R-R-Q-K-R-F117. The F gene of Ow/Tw/2209/95 was phylogenetically most closely related to that of Ck/Tw/2137/95 isolated from the same outbreak. The present results indicate that the causative virus of the 1995 ND outbreak had already been present in Taiwan. (+info)
Development of an effective polyvalent vaccine against both Marek's and Newcastle diseases based on recombinant Marek's disease virus type 1 in commercial chickens with maternal antibodies.
An earlier report (M. Sakaguchi et al., Vaccine 16:472-479, 1998) showed that recombinant Marek's disease virus type 1 (rMDV1) expressing the fusion (F) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV-F) under the control of the simian virus 40 late promoter [rMDV1-US10L(F)] protected specific pathogen-free chickens from NDV challenge, but not commercial chickens with maternal antibodies against NDV and MDV1. In the present study, we constructed an improved polyvalent vaccine based on MDV1 against MDV and NDV in commercial chickens with maternal antibodies. The study can be summarized as follows. (i) We constructed rMDV1 expressing NDV-F under the control of the MDV1 glycoprotein B (gB) promoter [rMDV1-US10P(F)]. (ii) Much less NDV-F protein was expressed in cells infected with rMDV1-US10P(F) than in those infected with rMDV1-US10L(F). (iii) The antibody response against NDV-F and MDV1 antigens of commercial chickens vaccinated with rMDV1-US10P(F) was much stronger and faster than with rMDV1-US10L(F), and a high level of antibody against NDV-F persisted for over 80 weeks postvaccination. (iv) rMDV1-US10P(F) was readily reisolated from the vaccinated chickens, and the recovered viruses were found to express NDV-F. (v) Vaccination of commercial chickens having maternal antibodies to rMDV1-US10P(F) completely protected them from NDV challenge. (vi) rMDV1-US10P(F) offered the same degree of protection against very virulent MDV1 as the parental MDV1 and commercial vaccines. These results indicate that rMDV1-US10P(F) is an effective and stable polyvalent vaccine against both Marek's and Newcastle diseases even in the presence of maternal antibodies. (+info)
Velogenic Newcastle disease in imported caged birds.
Velogenic Newcastle disease was diagnosed in pet birds intended for importation into Canada. Virological and histopathological examination confirmed the presence of the disease. The group of birds was denied entry into Canada. Similar birds illegally imported are a potential source of velogenic Newcastle disease virus and are a threat to domestic poultry. (+info)
Detection and quantification of antibodies to Newcastle disease virus in ostrich and rhea sera using a liquid phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
A liquid phase blocking ELISA (LPB-ELISA) was adapted for the detection and quantification of antibodies to Newcastle disease virus. Sera from vaccinated and unvaccinated commercial flocks of ostriches (Struthio camelus) and rheas (Rhea americana) were tested. The purified and nonpurified virus used as the antigen and the capture and detector antibodies were prepared and standardized for this purpose. The hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test was regarded as the reference method. The cutoff point for the LPB-ELISA was determined by a two-graph receiver operating characteristic analysis. The LPB-ELISA titers regressed significantly (P < 0.0001) on the HI titers with a high correlation coefficient (r = 0.875). The two tests showed good agreement (kappa = 0.82; P < 0.0001), relative sensitivity (90.91%) and specificity (91.18%), and accuracy (91.02%), suggesting that they are interchangeable. (+info)
Effect of liquid paraffin on antibody responses and local adverse reactions of bivalent oil adjuvanted vaccines containing newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus.
Effects of liquid paraffin on antibody responses and local adverse reactions after intramuscular injection of oil adjuvanted vaccines containing Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis (IB) virus were investigated in chickens. Each vaccine was prepared with a liquid paraffin such as Carnation, Crystol 52 and Lytol. These vaccines induced sustained antibody responses against ND and IB. Among local adverse reactions, Lytol induced granulomatous reactions and abscesses, but Carnation and Crystol 52 did not. The residual weight of liquid paraffin at the injection site decreased in the order Carnation, Crystol 52, Lytol. Crystol 52 was composed of relatively few short-chain hydrocarbons (i.e., n-C20H42). The vaccine with liquid paraffin mainly composed of n-C16H34-n-C20H42 was suggested to induce fewer adverse reactions. (+info)
Unique hemagglutination activity of an isolate of Newcastle disease virus.
The MET95 strain of a lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from a broiler in Japan, showed unique hemagglutination (HA) activity. The MET95 strain failed to show HA when examined by rapid glass plate method although they showed HA titer of 1:1,024 by micro-plate method. This unique HA was also observed after the MET95 strain was passaged ten times in chickens. The failure of HA by rapid glass plate method was not shown in any other NDVs examined. (+info)