Emergence of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Glycopeptide-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Working Group. (1/585)

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, the glycopeptide vancomycin has been the only uniformly effective treatment for staphylococcal infections. In 1997, two infections due to S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin were identified in the United States. METHODS: We investigated the two patients with infections due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides, as defined by a minimal inhibitory concentration of vancomycin of 8 to 16 microg per milliliter. To assess the carriage and transmission of these strains of S. aureus, we cultured samples from the patients and their contacts and evaluated the isolates. RESULTS: The first patient was a 59-year-old man in Michigan with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure. Peritonitis due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus peritonitis associated with dialysis. The removal of the peritoneal catheter plus treatment with rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole eradicated the infection. The second patient was a 66-year-old man with diabetes in New Jersey. A bloodstream infection due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia. This infection was eradicated with vancomycin, gentamicin, and rifampin. Both patients died. The glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus isolates differed by two bands on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. On electron microscopy, the isolates from the infected patients had thicker extracellular matrixes than control methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates. No carriage was documented among 177 contacts of the two patients. CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides emphasizes the importance of the prudent use of antibiotics, the laboratory capacity to identify resistant strains, and the use of infection-control precautions to prevent transmission.  (+info)

Incidence and duration of hospitalizations among persons with AIDS: an event history approach. (2/585)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze hospitalization patterns of persons with AIDS (PWAs) in a multi-state/multi-episode continuous time duration framework. DATA SOURCES: PWAs on Medicaid identified through a match between the state's AIDS Registry and Medicaid eligibility files; hospital admission and discharge dates identified through Medicaid claims. STUDY DESIGN: Using a Weibull event history framework, we model the hazard of transition between hospitalized and community spells, incorporating the competing risk of death in each of these states. Simulations are used to translate these parameters into readily interpretable estimates of length of stay, the probability that a hospitalization will end in death, and the probability that a nonhospitalized person will be hospitalized within 90 days. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In multivariate analyses, participation in a Medicaid waiver program offering case management and home care was associated with hospital stays 1.3 days shorter than for nonparticipants. African American race and Hispanic ethnicity were associated with hospital stays 1.2 days and 1.0 day longer than for non-Hispanic whites; African Americans also experienced more frequent hospital admissions. Residents of the high-HIV-prevalence area of the state had more frequent admissions and stays two days longer than those residing elsewhere in the state. Older PWAs experienced less frequent hospital admissions but longer stays, with hospitalizations of 55-year-olds lasting 8.25 days longer than those of 25-year-olds. CONCLUSIONS: Much socioeconomic and geographic variability exists both in the incidence and in the duration of hospitalization among persons with AIDS in New Jersey. Event history analysis provides a useful statistical framework for analysis of these variations, deals appropriately with data in which duration of observation varies from individual to individual, and permits the competing risk of death to be incorporated into the model. Transition models of this type have broad applicability in modeling the risk and duration of hospitalization in chronic illnesses.  (+info)

Agreement between drug treatment data and a discharge diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in the elderly. (3/585)

The authors examined agreement between drug treatment data and a discharge diagnosis of diabetes, considered whether agreement was modified by demographic variables and measures of comorbidity, and evaluated construct validity through consideration of relations with subsequent mortality. The study sample comprised 81,700 residents of New Jersey aged 65-99 years who had prescription drug coverage either through Medicaid or that state's Pharmacy Assistance for the Aged and Disabled program and had at least one hospitalization between July 1, 1989, and June 30, 1991. In this population, 16.4% filled a prescription for insulin or an oral hypoglycemic agent during the 120 days before admission, and 16.3% had a discharge diagnosis of diabetes. Overall agreement between these two indicators was modest (kappa = 0.67, 95% confidence interval 0.66-0.67) and was weaker in those aged 85 years and above (kappa = 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.56-0.60), those in nursing homes (kappa = 0.42, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.44), and those with a high level of comorbidity (modified Charlson index > or =5; kappa = 0.59, 95% confidence interval 0.56-0.62). Presence of a diagnosis of diabetes was associated with an apparent 24% reduction in the risk of death during the study interval (p<0.001), while prior treatment for diabetes had little relation to mortality (p = 0.15). These paradoxical associations with mortality and the lower agreement between discharge diagnoses and drug treatments associated with older age, nursing home residence, and comorbidity suggest limitations in the use of claims data to identify diabetes in the elderly.  (+info)

A cost/efficacy analysis of oral antifungals indicated for the treatment of onychomycosis: griseofulvin, itraconazole, and terbinafine. (4/585)

This analysis was conducted at HIP Health plan of New Jersey (a Northeastern group model health maintenance organization) to determine the most cost-effective therapy among the three currently available oral antifungal drugs that are indicated for the treatment of onychomycosis: griseofulvin, itraconazole, and terbinafine. Costs of an appropriate and complete treatment regimen were calculated for each of the three drugs based on average wholesale price. Efficacy was determined by meta-analysis of the published literature for those studies where appropriate treatment regimens for onychomycosis were put to use. Efficacy outcome measures were limited to mycologic cure rates in the more recalcitrant cases of toenail onychomycosis. From these measures of cost and efficacy, a cost/efficacy ratio was calculated for each drug by dividing the cost per treatment by the weighted average mycological cure rate. This ratio represents the cost per mycologically cured infection. The final outcome measure (the cost per mycologically cured infection) was $2,721.28, $1,845.05, and $648.96, for griseofulvin, itraconazole, and terbinafine continuous therapies, respectively. For itraconazole and terbinafine pulse therapy, the costs were $855.88 and $388.50, respectively. For both continuous and pulse therapy, terbinafine is apparently the most cost-effective drug, followed by itraconazole and then by griseofulvin. Terbinafine has the fewest drug interactions and the highest treatment success rate.  (+info)

Southern extension of the range of human babesiosis in the eastern United States. (5/585)

We sought evidence of babesiosis in three residents of New Jersey who were suspected of local acquisition of Babesia microti infection. We tested serial blood samples from these residents for B. microti antibodies and amplifiable DNA by using immunofluorescent antibody and PCR techniques. All three residents experienced symptoms suggestive of acute babesiosis. The sera of each of the patients reacted against babesial antigen at a titer fourfold or higher in sequentially collected blood samples. PCR-amplifiable DNA, characteristic of B. microti, was detected in their blood. These data suggest that human B. microti infections were acquired recently in New Jersey, extending the range of this piroplasmosis in the northeastern United States.  (+info)

Oral contraceptive use and other risk factors in relation to HER-2/neu overexpression in breast cancer among young women. (6/585)

This study was undertaken to explore whether the incidence of breast tumors that overexpress HER-2/neu protein product (HER-2/neu+) is more strongly associated with oral contraceptives (OCs) and other factors than is the incidence of tumors that do not (HER-2/neu-). In a population-based sample of women <45 years, 42.9% (159 of 371) of in situ and invasive breast cancer cases were HER-2/neu+ as assessed by immunohistochemistry in archived tissue. Polytomous logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for HER-2/neu+ and HER-2/neu-breast cancer, as compared with 462 population-based controls, in relation to OCs and other factors. The ratio of the ORs (HER-2/neu+ versus HER-2/neu-tumors) was used as an indicator of heterogeneity in risk. There was little heterogeneity in risk for OC use of 6 months or more by HER-2/neu status (age-adjusted ratio of ORs, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.83-2.00). Among early pill users (< or =18 years of age) heterogeneity was apparent (2.39; 95% CI, 1.08-5.30), which was attenuated in a multivariate model (1.99; 95% CI, 0.87-4.54); among cases with estrogen receptor-negative tumors, heterogeneity increased to 5-fold. For other risk factors, there was no marked heterogeneity between + and - tumors for HER-2/neu. In summary, the incidence of breast cancer among younger women in relation to OC use at an early age varied with HER-2/neu status, with the odds ratio for +tumors twice that for -tumors.  (+info)

The transmission dynamics of gonorrhoea: modelling the reported behaviour of infected patients from Newark, New Jersey. (7/585)

A survey of the sexual behaviour of gonorrhoea patients in Newark was undertaken to evaluate parameters within a model of gonorrhoea transmission. Modelling work aimed to explain observed epidemiological patterns and to explore the potential impact of interventions. Reported behaviours, along with values derived from the literature, were used within a standard deterministic model of gonorrhoea transmission, where the population was stratified according to sex and rates of sex-partner change. The behaviours reported, particularly among women, are insufficient by themselves to explain the continued existence of gonorrhoea within the population. The majority of symptomatic patients seek treatment within a few days, and report that they do not have unprotected sex while symptomatic. The proportion of patients with low numbers of sex partners suggests that sexual mixing between people categorized according to sexual behaviour is near random. To explain the persistence of gonorrhoea, there must be some patients who, when infected, do not seek care in public clinics. In addition, gonorrhoea incidence in the model is sensitive to change, such that very small reductions in risk behaviour could lead to its elimination. This does not accord with the observed failure of many interventions to eliminate infection, suggesting that the modelled infection is too sensitive to change. The model, which has been influential in gonorrhoea epidemiology, is not consistent with the observed epidemiology of gonorrhoea in populations. Alternative models need to explore the observed stability of gonorrhoea before robust modelling conclusions can be drawn on how best to control infection. However, the current results do highlight the potential importance of asymptomatic infections and infections in those who are diseased and do not attend public health services. Screening and contact-tracing to identify asymptomatic infections in both men and women will be more effective in reaching those who maintain the infection within the community rather than simply treating symptomatic cases.  (+info)

Schizophrenia and major affective disorder among Medicaid recipients with HIV/AIDS in New Jersey. (8/585)

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to identify and characterize seriously mentally ill patients with HIV infection. METHODS: Medicaid beneficiaries with HIV/AIDS were identified through the merging of New Jersey HIV/AIDS Registry and Medicaid eligibility files. Claims histories were used to classify individuals as having schizophrenia, major affective disorder, or no serious mental illness. RESULTS: Of 8294 individuals, 476 (5.7%) were classified as having schizophrenia, and 564 (6.8%) were classified as having major affective disorder. Those with serious mental illness were more likely than other groups to be injection drug users and to have claims indicative of substance abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with serious mental illness are a significant but little-recognized subgroup of those with HIV infection.  (+info)