Role of Listeria monocytogenes exotoxins listeriolysin and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C in activation of human neutrophils.
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are essential for resolution of infections with Listeria monocytogenes. The present study investigated the role of the listerial exotoxins listeriolysin (LLO) and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PlcA) in human neutrophil activation. Different Listeria strains, mutated in individual virulence genes, as well as purified LLO were used. Coincubation of human neutrophils with wild-type L. monocytogenes provoked PMN activation, occurring independently of phagocytosis events, with concomitant elastase secretion, leukotriene generation, platelet-activating factor (PAF) synthesis, respiratory burst, and enhanced phosphoinositide hydrolysis. Degranulation and leukotriene formation were noted to be solely dependent on LLO expression, as these features were absent when the LLO-defective mutant EGD- and the avirulent strain L. innocua were used. These effects were fully reproduced by a recombinant L. innocua strain expressing LLO (INN+) and by the purified LLO molecule. LLO secretion was also required for PAF synthesis. However, wild-type L. monocytogenes was more potent in eliciting PAF formation than mutants expressing LLO, suggesting the involvement of additional virulence factors. This was even more obvious for phosphoinositide hydrolysis and respiratory burst: these events were provoked not only by INN+ but also by the LLO-defective mutant EGD- and by a recombinant L. innocua strain producing listerial PlcA. We conclude that human neutrophils react to extracellularly provided listerial exotoxins by rapid cell activation. Listeriolysin is centrally involved in triggering degranulation and lipid mediator generation, and further virulence factors such as PlcA apparently contribute to trigger neutrophil phosphoinositide hydrolysis and respiratory burst. In this way, listerial exotoxins may influence the host defense against infections with L. monocytogenes. (+info
Does soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) affect neutrophil activation and adhesion following ischaemia-reperfusion?
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of reperfusion plasma and sICAM-1 on neutrophil integrin expression and neutrophil adhesion to determine if sICAM-1 has a potential role in the regulation of neutrophil adhesion. MATERIALS: Twenty-seven patients, 17 men and 10 women undergoing femorodistal surgery. Blood was taken preoperatively and from the femoral vein following the release of the cross-clamp. Neutrophils were obtained from five volunteers and incubated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS), preoperative plasma or reperfusion plasma with and without sICAM-1. Neutrophil expression of CD11b and adhesion were measured. MAIN RESULTS: Neutrophil CD11b expression did not change following incubation in the three media. Neutrophil adhesion increased significantly following exposure to reperfusion plasma compared to PBS or preoperative plasma (45.5 adhesion vs. 12.75%, p < 0.01 Mann-Whitney U-test). Soluble ICAM-1 decreased CD11b expression and adhesion in neutrophils exposed to reperfusion plasma only (CD11b expression fell from 15.9 to 3.4 mcf, p < 0.01 Mann-Whitney U-test and adhesion fell to 11.6% cells adhered, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: An increase in CD11b expression is not required for an increase in neutrophil adhesion. The change in neutrophil adhesion produced by reperfusion plasma can be blocked by sICAM-1. Soluble ICAM-1 may have a physiological role in the regulation of neutrophil adhesion. (+info
Mechanisms of acute inflammatory lung injury induced by abdominal sepsis.
Sequestration of neutrophils and release of histotoxic mediators are considered important for the development of pathologic alterations of the lung defined as adult respiratory distress syndrome. Mechanisms of inflammatory lung injury caused by abdominal sepsis were investigated using the colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP) model that closely mimics the human disease. In the CASP model, a continuous leakage of intraluminal bacteria into the peritoneal cavity is induced by implantation of a stent in the ascending colon, generating a septic focus. In contrast to the cecal ligation and puncture model of peritonitis, survival of mice following CASP surgery is dependent on IFN-gamma, but independent of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Here we show that the systemic inflammation induced by CASP surgery results in a rapid and profound increase of lung vascular permeability that was associated with the activation and recruitment of neutrophils to the lung. Activation of circulating granulocytes was characterized by increased production of serine proteinases and reactive oxygen metabolites, as well as elevated expression of cell surface Mac-1. Expression of MIP-2, KC, MIP-1alpha and E-selectin mRNA in lung was strongly increased within 3 h following CASP surgery, whereas up-regulation of IP-10, MCP-1 and P-selectin was delayed. In contrast, induction of RANTES, LIX, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA was weak or not detectable after CASP surgery. Importantly, recruitment of leukocytes to the lung was normal in lipopolysaccharide-resistant mice, and was not affected by antibody neutralization of TNF or the chemokines MIP-2 and KC. (+info
Mediators of anaphylaxis but not activated neutrophils augment cholinergic responses of equine small airways.
Neutrophilic inflammation in small airways (SA) and bronchospasm mediated via muscarinic receptors are features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in horses (COPD). Histamine, serotonin, and leukotrienes (LTs) are reported to be involved in the exacerbation of COPD, and currently, histamine has been shown to increase tension response to electrical field simulation (EFS) in equine SA. We tested the effects of these mediators and the effects of activated neutrophils on the cholinergic responses in SA. Histamine, serotonin, and LTD4 had a synergistic effect on EFS responses and only an additive effect on the tension response to exogenous ACh or methacholine. Atropine and TTX entirely eliminated the EFS-induced tension response in the presence of all three inflammatory mediators, indicating that augmentation of the EFS response applies only to the endogenous cholinergic response. Neutrophils isolated from control and COPD-affected horses were activated by zymosan, producing 18.1 +/- 2.3 and 25.0 +/- 2.3 nmol superoxide. 10(6) cells-1. 30 min-1, respectively. However, in contrast to the profound effect of mediators, incubation of SA for over 1 h in a suspension of up to 30 x 10(6) zymosan-treated neutrophils/ml did not significantly affect EFS responses of SA isolated from either control or COPD-affected horses. We conclude that in equine SA 1) the endogenous cholinergic responses are subject to strong facilitation by inflammatory mediators; 2) activated neutrophils do not affect cholinergic responses in SA; and 3) in acute bouts of equine COPD, histamine, LTD4, and serotonin (mediators primarily associated with type I allergic reaction) rather than mediators derived from neutrophils most likely contribute to increased cholinergic airway tone. (+info
Morphine preconditioning attenuates neutrophil activation in rat models of myocardial infarction.
Previous results from our laboratory have suggested that morphine can attenuate neutrophil activation in patients with acute myocardial infarction. To elucidate if morphine preconditioning (PC) has the same effects via activation of neutrophil endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP), we measured serum levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), gp100MEL14 and NEP in adult Wistar rats subjected to ten different protocols (n = 10 for each) at baseline, immediately after and 2 h after morphine PC. All groups were subjected to 30 min of occlusion and 2 h of reperfusion. Similarly, morphine-induced PC was elicited by 3-min drug infusions (100 micrograms/kg) interspersed with 5-min drug-free periods before the prolonged 30-min occlusion. Infarct size (IS), as a percentage of the area at risk (AAR), was determined by triphenyltetrazolium staining. Pretreatment with morphine increased NEP activities (9.86 +/- 1.98 vs. 5.12 +/- 1.10 nmol/mg protein in control group; p < 0.001). Naloxone (mu-opioid receptor antagonist) (4.82 +/- 1.02 nmol/mg protein) and phosphoramidon (NEP inhibitor) (4.66 +/- 1.00 nmol/mg protein) inhibited morphine-activated NEP, whereas glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive potassium channel antagonist) and chelerythrine (protein kinase C inhibitor) had no effects. The ICAM-1 and gp100MEL14 of the third sampling were lowest for those with morphine PC (280 +/- 30 ng/ml and 2.2 +/- 0.7 micrograms/ml; p < 0.001), but naloxone (372 +/- 38 ng/ml and 3.8 +/- 0.9 micrograms/ml) and phosphoramidon (382 +/- 40 ng/ml and 4.2 +/- 1.1 micrograms/ml) abolished the above phenomenon. IS/AAR were definitely lowest for those with morphine PC (24 +/- 7%; p < 0.05). Morphine preconditioning increases NEP activities to attenuate shedding of gp100MEL14 and to ICAM-1 and, thus, provides myocardial protection. (+info
A functional granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor is required for normal chemoattractant-induced neutrophil activation.
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor that is widely used to treat neutropenia. In addition to stimulating polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) production, G-CSF may have significant effects on PMN function. Because G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR)-deficient mice do not have the expected neutrophilia after administration of human interleukin-8 (IL-8), we examined the effect of the loss of G-CSFR on IL-8-stimulated PMN function. Compared with wild-type PMNs, PMNs isolated from G-CSFR-deficient mice demonstrated markedly decreased chemotaxis to IL-8. PMN emigration into the skin of G-CSFR-deficient mice in response to IL-8 was also impaired. Significant chemotaxis defects were also seen in response to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, zymosan-activated serum, or macrophage inflammatory protein-2. The defective chemotactic response to IL-8 does not appear to be due to impaired chemoattractant receptor function, as the number of IL-8 receptors and chemoattractant-induced calcium influx, actin polymerization, and release of gelatinase B were comparable to those of wild-type PMNs. Chemoattractant-induced adhesion of G-CSFR-deficient PMNs was significantly impaired, suggesting a defect in beta2-integrin activation. Collectively, these data demonstrate that selective defects in PMN activation are present in G-CSFR-deficient mice and indicate that G-CSF plays an important role in regulating PMN chemokine responsiveness. (+info
P-selectin mediates neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cell borders.
During an acute inflammatory response, endothelial P-selectin (CD62P) can mediate the initial capture of neutrophils from the free flowing bloodstream. P-selectin is stored in secretory granules (Weibel-Palade bodies) and is rapidly expressed on the endothelial surface after stimulation with histamine or thrombin. Because neutrophil transmigration occurs preferentially at endothelial borders, we wished to determine whether P-selectin-dependent neutrophil capture (adhesion) occurs at endothelial cell borders. Under static or hydrodynamic flow (2 dyn/cm2) conditions, histamine (10(-4) M) or thrombin (0.2 U/mL) treatment induced preferential (> or = 75%) neutrophil adhesion to the cell borders of endothelial monolayers. Blocking antibody studies established that neutrophil adhesion was completely P-selectin dependent. P-selectin surface expression increased significantly after histamine treatment and P-selectin immunostaining was concentrated along endothelial borders. We conclude that preferential P-selectin expression along endothelial borders may be an important mechanism for targeting neutrophil migration at endothelial borders. (+info
Antibodies to CD18 influence neutrophil migration through extracellular matrix.
Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) is known to be involved in neutrophil (PMN) adhesion to endothelial cells and extracellular matrix. Although antibodies to CD 18 are being tested for therapy in humans, their role in PMN migration through the extracellular matrix is unknown. We used direct visualization to quantify PMN motility through reconstituted, three-dimensional gels of collagen type I. Gels were prepared with different concentrations of collagen (ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 mg/mL) and PMN migration was examined in the presence and absence of antibodies to CD18 (anti-CD18), with and without stimulation by N-formyl peptides. In low-concentration gels (<0.6 mg/mL), anti-CD18 had a significant influence on PMN migration, increasing motility in unstimulated PMN by 90% at 0.3 mg/mL collagen, and decreasing motility in N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-stimulated PMN by 70% at 0.4 mg/mL collagen. But antiCD18 had no effect on the rate of cell migration through high-concentration collagen gels (>0.6 mg/mL). PMN migration through collagen gels is CD18-dependent but only under conditions of high hydration, suggesting that CD18-mediated effects (e.g., adhesion to gel fibers) are only important when the fiber density is relatively low. Anti-CD18 inhibited, but did not eliminate, the adhesion of fMLP-stimulated PMN to the surface of collagen gels, suggesting that cells use multiple mechanisms for gaining traction within the gel. Because of the multiple modes of interaction between motile cells and the deformable fiber matrix, blockade of one component, such as CD18, can enhance the rate of cell migration under one set of conditions, and inhibit under another. (+info