(1/1622) Effects of stimulants of abuse on extrapyramidal and limbic neuropeptide Y systems.

Neuropeptide Y (NPY), an apparent neuromodulating neuropeptide, has been linked to dopamine systems and dopamine-related psychotic disorders. Because of this association, we determined and compared the effects of psychotomimetic drugs on extrapyramidal and limbic NPY systems. We observed that phencyclidine, methamphetamine (METH), (+)methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and cocaine, but not (-)MDMA, similarly reduced the striatal content of NPY-like immunoreactivity from 54% (phencyclidine) to 74% [(+) MDMA] of control. The effects of METH on NPY levels in the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra were characterized in greater detail. We observed that METH decreased NPY levels in specific regions of the nucleus accumbens and the caudate, but had no effect on NPY in the globus pallidus or the substantia nigra. The dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390 blocked these effects of METH, suggesting that NPY levels throughout the nucleus accumbens and the caudate are regulated through D1 pathways. The D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride did not appear to alter the METH effect, but this was difficult to determine because eticlopride decreased NPY levels by itself. A single dose of METH was sufficient to lower NPY levels, in some, but not all, regions examined. The effects on NPY levels after multiple METH administrations were substantially greater and persisted up to 48 h after treatment; this suggests that synthesis of this neuropeptide may be suppressed even after the drug is gone. These findings suggest that NPY systems may contribute to the D1 receptor-mediated effects of the psychostimulants.  (+info)

(2/1622) Divergent effects of intracerebroventricular and peripheral leptin administration on feeding and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y in lean and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats.

Leptin inhibits feeding and decreases body weight. It may act partly by inhibiting hypothalamic neurons that express neuropeptide Y, a powerful inducer of feeding and obesity. These neuropeptide Y neurons express the Ob-Rb leptin receptor and are overactive in the fatty (fa/fa) Zucker rat. The fa mutation affects the extracellular domain of the leptin receptor, but its impact on leptin action and neuropeptide Y neuronal activity is not fully known. We compared the effects of three doses of leptin given intracerebroventricularly and three doses of leptin injected intraperitoneally on food intake and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y mRNA, in lean and fatty Zucker rats. In lean rats, 4-h food intake was reduced in a dose-related fashion (P<0.01) by all intracerebroventricular leptin doses and by intraperitoneal doses of 300 and 600 microg/kg. Neuropeptide Y mRNA levels were reduced by 28% and 21% after the highest intracerebroventricular and intraperitoneal doses respectively (P<0. 01 for both). In fatty rats, only the highest intracerebroventricular leptin dose reduced food intake (by 22%; P<0. 01). Neuropeptide Y mRNA levels were 100% higher in fatty rats than in lean animals, and were reduced by 18% (P<0.01) after the highest intracerebroventricular leptin dose. Intraperitoneal injection had no effect on food intake and neuropeptide Y mRNA. The fa/fa Zucker rat is therefore less sensitive to leptin given intracerebroventricularly and particularly intraperitoneally, suggesting that the fa mutation interferes both with leptin's direct effects on neurons and its transport into the central nervous system. Obesity in the fa/fa Zucker rat may be partly due to the inability of leptin to inhibit hypothalamic neuropeptide Y neurons.  (+info)

(3/1622) Interactions between the neuropeptide Y system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

The aim of this paper is to review the present knowledge of interactions between the neuropeptide Y (NPY) system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. On the basis of in vitro and in vivo studies of various animal species, we review the effects of NPY on all levels of HPA axis activity. We also describe the effects of glucocorticosteroids on the NPY system in the hypothalamus, including interactions between glucocorticosteroids and insulin. On the basis of available literature, we discuss the role of these interactions in the control of food intake and in the pathogenesis of obesity.  (+info)

(4/1622) Nonsaturable entry of neuropeptide Y into brain.

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is found and is active both in the periphery and brain, but its crossing of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in either direction has not been measured. We used multiple time-regression analysis to determine that radioactively labeled NPY injected intravenously entered the brain much faster than albumin, with an influx constant of 2.0 x 10(-4) ml. g. -1. min-1. However, this rate of entry was not significantly changed by injection of 10 microgram/mouse of excess NPY, by leptin, or by food deprivation. HPLC showed that most of the NPY entering the brain was intact, and capillary depletion with and without washout showed that the NPY did not remain bound to endothelial cells or associated with vascular elements. Perfusion in a blood-free solution eliminated binding to serum proteins as an explanation for the lack of saturation. Efflux of labeled NPY from the brain occurred at the same rate as albumin, reflecting the normal rate of reabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid. Thus NPY can readily enter the brain from blood by diffusion across the BBB.  (+info)

(5/1622) Characterization of nodular neuronal heterotopia in children.

Neuronal heterotopia are seen in various pathologies and are associated with intractable epilepsy. We examined brain tissue from four children with subcortical or periventricular nodular heterotopia of different aetiologies: one with severe epilepsy following focal brain trauma at 17 weeks gestation, one with hemimegalencephaly and intractable epilepsy, one with focal cortical dysplasia and intractable epilepsy, and one dysmorphic term infant with associated hydrocephalus and polymicrogyria. The connectivity of nodules was investigated using histological and carbocyanine dye (DiI) tracing techniques. DiI crystal placement adjacent to heterotopic nodules revealed numerous DiI-labelled fibres within a 2-3 mm radius of the crystals. Although we observed labelled fibres closely surrounding nodules, the majority did not penetrate them. Placement of DiI crystals within nodules also identified a limited number of projections out of the nodules and in one case there was evidence for connectivity between adjacent nodules. The cellular and neurochemical composition of nodules was also examined using immunohistochemistry for calretinin and neuropeptide Y (NPY), which are normally expressed in GABAergic cortical interneurons. Within heterotopic nodules from all cases, numerous calretinin-positive neurons were identified, along with a few cell bodies and many processes positive for NPY. Calretinin-positive neurons within nodules were less morphologically complex than those in the cortex, which may reflect incomplete differentiation into an inhibitory neuronal phenotype. There were also abnormal clusters of calretinin-positive cells in the overlying cortical plate, indicating that the migratory defect which produces heterotopic nodules also affects development of the cortex itself. Thus, heterotopic nodules consisting of multiple neuronal cell types are associated with malformation in the overlying cortical plate, and have limited connectivity with other brain regions. This abnormal development of connectivity may affect neuronal maturation and consequently the balance of excitation and inhibition in neuronal circuits, leading to their epileptogenic potential.  (+info)

(6/1622) The effects of age on human venous responsiveness to neuropeptide Y.

AIMS: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a sympathetic neurotransmitter released with noradrenaline during sympathetic stimulation. Ageing has been shown to be associated with a reduction in alpha2 and beta-adrenoceptor mediated responses in veins, but it is not known whether NPY responsiveness is also altered with increasing age. METHODS: Using a dorsal hand vein technique, we examined NPY receptor responsiveness in 24 normal, healthy subjects (20-72 years; 10 males, 14 females). Graded infusions of NPY (25-2000 pmol min(-1)) were administered (5 min at each dose) into a dorsal hand vein. Venous distension at 45 mmHg was measured at 3-5 min of each infusion. Dose-response curves to NPY were constructed and the peak venoconstriction was calculated. RESULTS: Dose-dependent venoconstriction was seen in all but one subject. The peak venoconstriction observed with NPY was significantly and negatively correlated with the age of the normal subjects (r=-0.63, P<0.01). When subjects were ranked from youngest to oldest and divided into tertiles, (20-40 years, n = 8; 41-55 years, n = 8; 56-72 years, n = 8), mean dose-response curves were different with the oldest tertile being significantly less responsive (P<0.05). The peak venoconstriction observed (% of control) was 65.1+/-7.0, 46.5+/-9.4, and 24.4+/-4.8%, respectively. The oldest tertile had a significantly decreased peak venoconstriction compared with the youngest tertile (P<0.01). Infusion of NPY into a dorsal hand vein had no systemic effects on heart rate or blood pressure in any of the subjects studied. CONCLUSIONS: Hand vein responsiveness to exogenously infused NPY in normal subjects is decreased as age increases. The reduction of NPY-receptor-mediated responses with age may influence sympathetic nervous system control of the venous system with advancing age.  (+info)

(7/1622) The effect of the orexins on food intake: comparison with neuropeptide Y, melanin-concentrating hormone and galanin.

Orexin-A and orexin-B (the hypocretins) are recently described neuropeptides suggested to have a physiological role in the regulation of food intake in the rat. We compared the orexigenic effect of the orexins administered intracerebroventricular (ICV) with other known stimulants of food intake, one strong, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and two weaker, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and galanin. Orexin-A consistently stimulated food intake, but orexin-B only on occasions. Both peptides stimulated food intake significantly less than NPY, but to a similar extent to MCH (2 h food intake: NPY 3 nmol, 7.2+/-0.9 g vs saline, 1.5+/-0.2 g, P<0.001, MCH 3 nmol, 3.2+/-0.8 g vs saline, P<0.01, orexin-B 30 nmol, 2. 6+/-0.5 g vs saline, P=0.11) and to galanin (1 h food intake: galanin 3 nmol, 2.0+/-0.4 g vs saline, 0.8+/-0.2 g, P<0.05, orexin-A 3 nmol 2.2+/-0.4 g vs saline, P<0.01; 2 hour food intake: orexin-B 3 nmol, 2.4+/-0.3 g vs saline, 1.3+/-0.2 g, P<0.05). Following ICV orexin-A, hypothalamic c-fos, a maker of neuronal activation, was highly expressed in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and the arcuate nucleus (P<0.005 for both). IntraPVN injection of orexin-A stimulated 2 h food intake by one gram (orexin-A 0.03 nmol, 1.6+/-0. 3 g vs saline, 0.5+/-0.3 g, P<0.005). These findings support the suggestion that the orexins stimulate food intake. However, this effect is weak and may cast doubt upon their physiological importance in appetite regulation in the rat.  (+info)

(8/1622) GABAergic neurons that contain neuropeptide Y selectively target cells with the neurokinin 1 receptor in laminae III and IV of the rat spinal cord.

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is contained in a population of GABAergic interneurons in the spinal dorsal horn and, when administered intrathecally, can produce analgesia. We previously identified a strong monosynaptic link between substance P-containing primary afferents and cells in lamina III or IV with the neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor. Because some of these cells belong to the spinothalamic tract, they are likely to have an important role in pain mechanisms. In this study, we used confocal microscopy to examine the input to lamina III/IV NK1 receptor-immunoreactive neurons from NPY-containing axons. All of the cells studied received a dense innervation from NPY-immunoreactive axons, and electron microscopy revealed that synapses were often present at points of contact. Most NPY-immunoreactive boutons were also GABAergic, which supports the suggestion that they are derived from local neurons. The association between NPY-containing axons and NK1 receptor-immunoreactive neurons was specific, because postsynaptic dorsal column neurons (which were located in laminae III-V but did not possess NK1 receptors) and lamina I neurons with the NK1 receptor received significantly fewer contacts from NPY-immunoreactive axons. In addition, the NK1 receptor-immunoreactive lamina III/IV cells received few contacts from nitric oxide synthase-containing axons (which belong to a different population of GABAergic dorsal horn neurons). The NPY-containing axons appeared to be targeted to the NK1 receptor-immunoreactive neurons themselves rather than to their associated substance P-immunoreactive inputs. The dense innervation of these cells by NPY-containing axons suggests that they may possess receptors for NPY and that activation of these receptors may contribute to NPY-mediated analgesia.  (+info)