Neuronavigation: concept, techniques and applications.
Neuronavigation provides intraoperative orientation to the surgeon, helps in planning a precise surgical approach to the targetted lesion and defines the surrounding neurovascular structures. Incorporation of the functional data provided by functional MRI and magnetoencephalography (MEG) with neuronavigation helps to avoid the eloquent areas of the brain during surgery. An intraoperative MRI enables radical resection of the lesions, the possibility of immediate control for tumor remnants and updates of neuronavigation with intraoperative images to compensate for brain shift. In this study, the experience of 432 patients undergoing neuronavigation assisted neurosurgical interventions using either the pointer-based or microscope-based navigational systems at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany is presented. The procedures included stereotactic biopsy (n=53), stereotactic cyst puncture/ventricular drainage (n=15), eloquent cortex/tumor localization to facilitate tumor resection, assessment of neurovascular structures in the vicinity of tumors of the sellar-suprasellar regions, skull base, posterior fossa and ventricular region (n=252), and, surgery for epilepsy (n=9). Functional brain mapping using fMRI and MEG and their integration with neuronavigation was carried out in 24 and 128 patients respectively. The simultaneous use of intraoperative MRI to look for the remaining tumor was done in 159 patients and the update of navigational data was carried out in 17 patients. The mean system accuracy obtained by using both the fiducial registration as well as anatomical landmark-surface fitting computer algorithm was 1.81 mm. This study reviews the relative merits and demerits of the pointer and microscope based navigational systems and also highlights the role of functional brain mapping and intraoperative MRI, when integrated with neuronavigation, in the surgical decision-making to offer the chances of more radical resections with minimal morbidity. (+info)
Image fusion for skull base neuronavigation. Technical note.
An automatic image fusion module (BrainLab, Munich, Germany) is used for the fusion of the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computed tomography (CT) data sets. The procedure of image fusion takes 5 minutes prior to surgery. The image fusion of CT and MR imaging data visualizes the skull base and tumor margins clearly. Color display of the different data sets allows the tumor and the skull base to be distinguished easily. The fused CT data in bone window mode provides useful additional information on the osseous skull base. (+info)
Conventional and perfusion MR imaging of parafalcine chondrosarcoma.
Intracranial chondrosarcomas have a predilection for the skull base, for which CT and MR imaging findings have been described. We present a rare case of primary chondrosarcoma arising from the falx in a young woman with no history of radiation. The CT, conventional MR imaging, perfusion MR imaging, and digital subtraction angiography findings are described. (+info)
Percutaneous intraspinal navigation: feasibility study of a new and minimally invasive approach to the spinal cord and brain in cadavers.
We describe a percutaneous approach for cerebral surgical access. After lumbar puncture, the spinal subarachnoid space was traversed by using standard angiographic guidewire techniques until the introducer catheters were in the intracranial space. Under fluoroscopic guidance, the intracranial subarachnoid space was navigated, and the ventricular system entered. Subarachnoid placement was confirmed with contrast-enhanced digital angiography. Placement anterior to the brain stem was confirmed in both cadavers during dissection, and spinal navigation without cord damage from the anterior or posterior approach was confirmed in one. Percutaneous intraspinal navigation is a new route of access for cerebrospinal surgery that has many potential applications. (+info)
MR-guided catheter navigation of the intracranial subarachnoid space.
Percutaneous intraspinal navigation (PIN) is a new minimally invasive approach to the CNS. The authors studied the utility of MR-guided intracranial navigation following access to the subarachnoid compartment via PIN. The passive tracking technique was employed to visualize devices during intracranial navigation. Under steady-state free precession (SSFP) MR-guidance a microcatheter-microguidewire was successfully navigated to multiple brain foci in two cadavers. SSFP MR fluoroscopy possesses adequate contrast and temporal resolution to allow MR-guided intracranial navigation. (+info)
Image-guided resection of cerebral cavernous malformations.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate retrospectively the effectiveness of image-guided navigation techniques in the management of cerebral CMs. METHODS: Between July 1997 and January 2001, 44 patients underwent image-guided resection of cerebral CMs. To counteract brain shift, a small silicon catheter was implanted as a guide in the case of deep-seated lesions (except in the case of brain stem CMs) and before excision of multiple lesions. RESULTS: A total of 27 men and 17 women with a mean age of 35 years underwent surgical procedures (5 patients had multiple lesions). The lesions were located in the frontal (n = 14), lobe temporal lobe (n = 12), parietal lobe (n = 6), cerebellum (n = 6), thalamus (n = 5), pons (n = 5), and orbital region (n = 1). Under the guidance of a StealthStation navigator, total removal of the lesions was achieved in all patients. Follow-up revealed marked improvement of preoperative symptoms in 26 patients and no additional deficits in 13 patients. Five patients suffered from additional neurological deficits, but two of them gradually improved during the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: With the assistance of an image-guided surgical system, functional areas can be effectively avoided and surgical injury can be decreased. This system is well suited for accurate localization and safe resection of small, deep-seated CMs. (+info)
Neuronavigator-guided glioma surgery.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of neuronavigator-guided surgery for the resection of gliomas. METHODS: A total of 80 patients with gliomas underwent surgical treatment under the StealthStation neuronavigator to estimate the extent of the tumors. In 27 cases, the measurements of brain shifts at the dura, cortical surface and lesion margin were recorded during the operations. A technique termed "micro-catheter fence post" was used in superficial gliomas to compensate for brain shift. RESULTS: Mean fiducial error and predicted accuracy in the 80 cases were 2.03 mm +/- 0.89 mm and 2.43 mm +/- 0.99 mm, respectively. The shifts at the dura, cortical surface and lesion margin were 3.44 mm +/- 2.39 mm, 7.58 mm +/- 3.75 mm, and 6.55 mm +/- 3.19 mm, respectively. Although neuronavigation revealed residual tumors, operations were discontinued in 5 cases of deep-seated gliomas. In the other 75 cases, total tumor removals were achieved in 62 (82.7%), and subtotal removals were achieved in 13 (17.3%). Post-operation, neurological symptoms were improved or unchanged in 68 cases (85.0%), and worsened in 12 (15.0%). No deaths occurred during the operations and post-operations. CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative brain shifts mainly contribute to the fail of spatial accuracy during neuronavigator-guided glioma surgery. The "micro-catheter fence post" technique used for glioma surgery is shown to be useful for compensating for intraoperative brain shifts. This technique, thus, contributes to an increase in total tumor removal and a decrease in surgical complications. (+info)
Interventional MR imaging with an endospinal imaging coil: preliminary results with anatomic imaging of the canine and cadaver spinal cord.
Percutaneous intraspinal navigation (PIN) is a new minimally invasive approach to the subarachnoid space. Using conventional radiographic fluoroscopy, entrance is gained to the lumbar subarachnoid space, allowing navigation throughout the spinal canal. Using an antenna/guidewire introduced via PIN, we performed endospinal MR imaging of the thoracic spinal cord in a cadaver and canine subject. Comparison images were obtained with an optimal surface coil. PIN allows endospinal MR imaging of the spinal cord, providing significant signal-to-noise ratio gains over conventional imaging. (+info)