Pure botulinum neurotoxin is absorbed from the stomach and small intestine and produces peripheral neuromuscular blockade.
Clostridium botulinum serotype A produces a neurotoxin composed of a 100-kDa heavy chain and a 50-kDa light chain linked by a disulfide bond. This neurotoxin is part of a ca. 900-kDa complex, formed by noncovalent association with a single nontoxin, nonhemagglutinin subunit and a family of hemagglutinating proteins. Previous work has suggested, although never conclusively demonstrated, that neurotoxin alone cannot survive passage through the stomach and/or cannot be absorbed from the gut without the involvement of auxiliary proteins in the complex. Therefore, this study compared the relative absorption and toxicity of three preparations of neurotoxin in an in vivo mouse model. Equimolar amounts of serotype A complex with hemagglutinins, complex without hemagglutinins, and purified neurotoxin were surgically introduced into the stomach or into the small intestine. In some experiments, movement of neurotoxin from the site of administration was restricted by ligation of the pylorus. Comparison of relative toxicities demonstrated that at adequate doses, complex with hemagglutinins, complex without hemagglutinins, and pure neurotoxin can be absorbed from the stomach. The potency of neurotoxin in complex was greater than that of pure neurotoxin, but the magnitude of this difference diminished as the dosage of neurotoxin increased. Qualitatively similar results were obtained when complex with hemagglutinins, complex without hemagglutinins, and pure neurotoxin were placed directly into the intestine. This work establishes that pure botulinum neurotoxin serotype A is toxic when administered orally. This means that pure neurotoxin does not require hemagglutinins or other auxiliary proteins for absorption from the gastrointestinal system into the general circulation. (+info)
Botulinum toxin treatment of hemifacial spasm and blepharospasm: objective response evaluation.
Twenty seven patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS) and sixteen patients with blepharospasm (BS) having mean Jankovic disability rating scale score of 2.56+0.58 SD and 2.81+0.54 SD, respectively, were treated with botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injections. The total number of injection sessions were ninety one with relief response in 98.91%. The mean improvement in function scale score was 3.78+0.64 SD and 3.29+1.07 SD respectively, in HFS and BS groups. The clinical benefit induced by botulinum toxin lasted for a mean of 4.46+3.11 SD (range 2 to 13) months in HFS group and 2.66+1.37 SD (range 1 to 6) months, in BS groups. Transient ptosis was seen in 4.39% of total ninety one injection sessions. These findings show that local botulinum toxin treatment provides effective, safe and long lasting relief of spasms. (+info)
Comparison of two different formulations of botulinum toxin A for the treatment of oesophageal achalasia. The Gismad Achalasia Study Group.
BACKGROUND: Intrasphincteric injection of botulinum toxin has been reported as a safe and effective alternative treatment in oesophageal achalasia, especially in high-risk and elderly patients. AIM: : To compare two formulations of botulinum toxin in the management of achalasia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We randomly compared the efficacy and safety of 100 U of Botox (Allergan, Irvine, USA) and 250 U of Dysport (Ipsen, Milan, Italy), injected through a sclerotherapy needle at the level of the lower oesophageal sphincter, in 78 consecutive patients with achalasia. Symptom score, oesophageal manometry and 24 h pH-metry were recorded (before and 1 month after therapy). Symptom score was also obtained 6 months after treatment. RESULTS: One month after treatment, the effects of the toxin on symptoms and oesophageal tests were similar for both formulations. Lower oesophageal sphincter pressure decreased from 31 +/- 12 to 18 +/- 5 mmHg after Botox, and from 35 +/- 9 to 18 +/- 10 after Dysport. At the end of the follow-up period (6 months), symptom score decreased from 5 +/- 1.2 to 1.2 +/- 0.8 after Botox and from 5.2 +/- 1.5 to 1.5 +/- 1 after Dysport. Moreover, the percentages of patients who failed to respond to treatment (10% and 17.5%) and who relapsed during follow-up (12% and 24%) did not differ significantly. No patient complained of reflux symptoms after treatment, although abnormal acid exposure was documented in two subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Both formulations of botulinum toxin have comparable efficacy in the treatment of oesophageal achalasia, for up to 6 months of follow-up. (+info)
Expression of Kv1 potassium channels in mouse hippocampal primary cultures: development and activity-dependent regulation.
Excitability and discharge behavior of neurons depends on the highly variable expression pattern of voltage-dependent potassium (Kv) channels throughout the nervous system. To learn more about distribution, development, and activity-dependent regulation of Kv channel subunit expression in the rodent hippocampus, we studied the protein expression of members of the Kv1 subfamily in mouse hippocampus in situ and in primary cultures. In adult hippocampus, Kv1 (1-6) channel alpha-subunits were present, whereas at postnatal day 2, none of these proteins could be detected in CA1-CA3 and dentate gyrus. Kv1.1 was the first channel to be observed at postnatal day 6. The delayed postnatal expression and most of the subcellular distribution observed in hippocampal sections were mimicked by cultured hippocampal neurons in which Kv channels appeared only after 10 days in vitro. This developmental upregulation was paralleled by a dramatic increase in total K(+) current, as well as an elevated GABA release in the presence of 4-aminopyridine. Thus, the developmental profile, subcellular localization, and functionality of Kv1 channels in primary culture of hippocampus closely resembles the in situ situation. Impairing secretion by clostridial neurotoxins or blocking activity by tetrodotoxin inhibited the expression of Kv1.1, Kv1.2, and Kv1.4, whereas the other Kv1 channels still appeared. This activity-dependent depression was only observed before the initial appearance of the respective channels and lost after they had been expressed. Our data show that hippocampal neurons in culture are a convenient model to study the developmental expression and regulation of Kv1 channels. The ontogenetic regulation and the activity-dependent expression of Kv1.1, Kv1.2, and Kv1.4 indicate that neuronal activity plays a crucial role for the development of the mature Kv channel pattern in hippocampal neurons. (+info)
Neuromuscular function of the human lower oesophageal sphincter in reflux disease and Barrett's oesophagus.
BACKGROUND: Columnar lined (Barrett's) oesophagus is often considered a sequel to chronic severe reflux disease. Aberrant lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) motility associated with Barrett's oesophagus includes reduced basal LOS pressures. The aim of this study was to characterise neuromuscular function of the LOS in normal (squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with uninvolved LOS) and reflux affected (Barrett's) oesophagus in vitro. METHODS: Strips of LOS muscle were prepared at biopsy following oesophagectomy from 16 patients with SCC and seven patients with oesophageal adenocarcinoma and Barrett's oesophagus associated with a history of reflux disease. LOS smooth muscle responses were recorded in response to electrical field stimulation (EFS), potassium chloride (KCl), DMPP, isoprenaline, capsaicin, bethanechol, and tachykinins. RESULTS: Basal LOS tone and LOS relaxations in response to isoprenaline, EFS, and DMPP were not significantly altered in the Barrett's group. After tetrodotoxin pretreatment, responses to KCl and DMPP were significantly reduced in the SCC but not in Barrett's LOS. Maximal contraction in response to bethanechol was significantly decreased in Barrett's LOS while substance P and NK-2 receptor mediated contraction was unaltered. Capsaicin, NK-1, and NK-3 receptor agonists exerted negligible effects on LOS tone. CONCLUSIONS: LOS muscle strips from patients with reflux associated Barrett's oesophagus exhibit a reduction in cholinergic muscle contraction while retaining similar features of basal tone, responses to tachykinins, and inhibitory muscle and neural function. Enteric inhibitory neurones in LOS muscle strips from patients with reflux associated Barrett's oesophagus display resistance to axonal sodium channel blockade. No evidence for functional NK-1 or NK-3 receptors or capsaicin sensitive axon collateral reflexes was observed in the human LOS. (+info)
Shared and unique roles of CAP23 and GAP43 in actin regulation, neurite outgrowth, and anatomical plasticity.
CAP23 is a major cortical cytoskeleton-associated and calmodulin binding protein that is widely and abundantly expressed during development, maintained in selected brain structures in the adult, and reinduced during nerve regeneration. Overexpression of CAP23 in adult neurons of transgenic mice promotes nerve sprouting, but the role of this protein in process outgrowth was not clear. Here, we show that CAP23 is functionally related to GAP43, and plays a critical role to regulate nerve sprouting and the actin cytoskeleton. Knockout mice lacking CAP23 exhibited a pronounced and complex phenotype, including a defect to produce stimulus-induced nerve sprouting at the adult neuromuscular junction. This sprouting deficit was rescued by transgenic overexpression of either CAP23 or GAP43 in adult motoneurons. Knockin mice expressing GAP43 instead of CAP23 were essentially normal, indicating that, although these proteins do not share homologous sequences, GAP43 can functionally substitute for CAP23 in vivo. Cultured sensory neurons lacking CAP23 exhibited striking alterations in neurite outgrowth that were phenocopied by low doses of cytochalasin D. A detailed analysis of such cultures revealed common and unique functions of CAP23 and GAP43 on the actin cytoskeleton and neurite outgrowth. The results provide compelling experimental evidence for the notion that CAP23 and GAP43 are functionally related intrinsic determinants of anatomical plasticity, and suggest that these proteins function by locally promoting subplasmalemmal actin cytoskeleton accumulation. (+info)
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study to compare the efficacy and safety of three doses of botulinum toxin type A (Dysport) with placebo in upper limb spasticity after stroke.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We sought to define an effective and safe dose of botulinum toxin type A (Dysport) for the treatment of upper limb muscle spasticity due to stroke. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study. Patients received either a placebo or 1 of 3 doses of Dysport (500, 1000, 1500 U) into 5 muscles of the affected arm. Efficacy was assessed periodically by the Modified Ashworth Scale and a battery of functional outcome measures. RESULTS: Eighty-three patients were recruited, and 82 completed the study. The 4 study groups were comparable at baseline with respect to their demographic characteristics and severity of spasticity. All doses of Dysport studied showed a significant reduction from baseline of muscle tone compared with placebo. However, the effect on functional disability was not statistically significant and was best at a dose of 1000 U. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in the incidence of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that treatment with Dysport reduces muscle tone in patients with poststroke upper limb spasticity. Treatment was effective at doses of Dysport of 500, 1000, and 1500 U. The optimal dose for treatment of patients with residual voluntary movements in the upper limb appears to be 1000 U. Dysport is safe in the doses used in this study. (+info)
Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial of the effect of botulinum toxin on walking in cerebral palsy.
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy is the commonest cause of severe physical disability in childhood. For many years treatment has centred on the use of physiotherapy and orthotics to overcome the problems of leg spasticity, which interferes with walking and can lead to limb deformity. Intramuscular botulinum toxin (BT-A) offers a targeted form of therapy to reduce spasticity in specific muscle groups. AIMS: To determine whether intramuscular BT-A can improve walking in children with cerebral palsy. DESIGN: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. METHODS: Forty patients with spastic diplegia or hemiplegia were enrolled. Twenty two received botulinum toxin and 18 received placebo. The primary outcome measure was video gait analysis and secondary outcome measures were gross motor function measure (GMFM), physiological cost index (PCI), and passive ankle dorsiflexion. RESULTS: Video gait analysis showed clinically and statistically significant improvement in initial foot contact following BT-A at six weeks and 12 weeks compared to placebo. Forty eight per cent of BT-A treated children showed clinical improvement in VGA compared to 17% of placebo treated children. The GMFM (walking dimension) showed a statistically significant improvement in favour of the botulinum toxin treated group. Changes in PCI and passive ankle dorsiflexion were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: The study gives further support to the use of intramuscular botulinum toxin type A as an adjunct to conventional physiotherapy and orthoses to reduce spasticity and improve functional mobility in children with spastic diplegic or hemiplegic cerebral palsy. (+info)