Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging after acoustic neuroma surgery: influence of packing materials in the drilled internal auditory canal on assessment of residual tumor.
Serial magnetic resonance (MR) images taken after acoustic neuroma surgery were analyzed to evaluate the pattern and timing of postoperative contrast enhancement in 22 patients who underwent acoustic neuroma removal via the suboccipital transmeatal approach. The opened internal auditory canal (IAC) was covered with a muscle piece in nine patients and with fibrin glue in 13. A total of 56 MR imaging examinations were obtained between days 1 and 930 after surgery. MR imaging showed linear enhancement at the IAC within the first 2 days after surgery, and revealed nodular enhancement on day 3 or later in patients with a muscle piece. MR imaging tended to show linear enhancement at the IAC, irrespective of the timing of the examination in the patients with fibrin glue. Postoperative MR imaging on day 3 or later showed the incidence of nodular enhancement in patients with muscle was significantly higher than in patients with fibrin glue. The results illustrate the difficulty in differentiating nodular enhancement on a muscle piece from tumor by a single postoperative MR imaging study. Therefore, fibrin glue is generally advocated as a packing material of the IAC because it rarely shows masslike enhancement on postoperative MR imaging. When a muscle piece is used in patients at high risk for postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leaks, MR imaging should be obtained within the first 2 days after surgery, since benign enhancement of muscle will not occur and obscure the precise extent of tumor resection. (+info)
Intraoperative monitoring during surgery for acoustic neuroma: benefits of an extratympanic intrameatal electrode.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the utility of an extratympanic intrameatal electrode for intraoperative monitoring during acoustic neuroma and other cerebellopontine angle tumour surgery and to define the neurophysiological and surgical factors which influence hearing preservation. METHODS: Twenty two patients, 18 with acoustic neuromas and four with other cerebellopontine angle tumours, underwent intraoperative monitoring during tumour excision. The extratympanic intrameatal electrode (IME) was used to record the electrocochleogram (ECoG) and surface electrodes to record the brainstem auditory evoked response (ABR). RESULTS: The compound action potential (CAP) of the ECoG was two and a half times greater in amplitude than wave I of the ABR and was easily monitored. Virtually instant information was available as minimal averaging was required. Continuous monitoring was possible from the commencement of anaesthesia to skin closure. The IME was easy to place, non-invasive, and did not interfere with the operative field. Operative procedures which affected CAP or wave V latency or amplitude were drilling around the internal auditory meatus, tumour dissection, nerve section, and brainstem and cerebellar retraction. Hearing was achieved in 59% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The IME had significant benefits in comparison with other methods of monitoring. The technique provided information beneficial to preservation of hearing. (+info)
Magnetic resonance cisternography using the fast spin echo method for the evaluation of vestibular schwannoma.
Neuroimaging of vestibular schwannoma was performed with the fat-suppression spoiled gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state (SPGR) method and magnetic resonance (MR) cisternography, which is a fast spin echo method using a long echo train length, for the preoperative evaluation of the lateral extension of the tumor in the internal auditory canal, and the anatomical identification of the posterior semicircular canal and the nerves in the canal distal to the tumor. The SPGR method overestimated the lateral extension in eight cases, probably because of enhancement of the nerves adjacent to the tumor in the canal. The posterior semicircular canal could not be clearly identified, and the cranial nerves in the canal were shown only as a nerve bundle. In contrast, MR cisternography showed clear images of the lateral extension of the tumor and the facial and cochlear nerves adjacent to the tumor in the internal auditory canal. The anatomical location of the posterior semicircular canal was also clearly shown. These preoperative findings are very useful to plan the extent to which the internal auditory canal can be opened, and for intraoperative identification of the nerves in the canal. MR cisternography is less invasive since no contrast material or radiation is required, as with thin-slice high-resolution computed tomography (CT). MR cisternography should replace high-resolution CT for the preoperative neuroradiological evaluation of vestibular schwannoma. (+info)
High-resolution MR cisternography of the cerebellopontine angle, obtained with a three-dimensional fast asymmetric spin-echo sequence in a 0.35-T open MR imaging unit.
High-resolution MR cisternography performed with 3D fast asymmetric spin-echo imaging (3D fast spin-echo with an ultra-long echo train length and asymmetric Fourier imaging) was optimized in a 0.35-T open MR imaging unit. The 0.35- and 1.5-T images of the two volunteers and three patients with acoustic schwannomas were then compared. The optimal parameters for images obtained by 3D fast asymmetric spin-echo imaging at 0.35 T were as follows: field of view, 15 cm; matrix, 256 x 256 x 40; section thickness, 1 mm; echo train length, 76; and imaging time, 10 minutes 44 seconds. Scans obtained from both normal volunteers showed the facial, cochlear, and superior and inferior vestibular nerves separately in the internal auditory canal on both 0.35- and 1.5-T images. All three acoustic schwannomas were depicted on both 0.35- and 1.5-T images. Screening for disease at the cerebellopontine angle and in the internal auditory canal, without the administration of contrast material on a low-field open MR imaging unit and within a clinically acceptable imaging time, may be possible. Further controlled prospective studies are required, however, before implementation on a wide basis. If proved effective, this may be of particular value for reducing healthcare costs and for imaging claustrophobic and pediatric patients in an open system. (+info)
Assessment of internal auditory canal tumors: a comparison of contrast-enhanced T1-weighted and steady-state T2-weighted gradient-echo MR imaging.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging is the standard of reference for diagnosing tumor in the cerebellopontine angle, high-resolution T2-weighted imaging may show more details of the seventh and eighth cranial nerve branches, resulting in more accurate tumor volume measurements. The purpose of this study was to compare two MR sequences for their ability to delineate internal auditory canal tumors. METHODS: Twenty-seven ears in 21 patients with 16 confirmed schwannomas were studied with the 3D T2-weighted prototype segment-interleaved motion-compensated acquisition in steady state (SIMCAST) and the T1-weighted contrast-enhanced spoiled gradient-echo (SPGR) techniques. Twenty-eight axial sections were acquired using parameters of 17/3.3 (TR/TE), a 40 degrees flip angle, a 20 x 15-cm or 22 x 16-cm field of view (FOV), a 512 x 256 matrix, and a 0.4- or 1.2-mm section thickness for the SIMCAST technique, and 30/4.2, a 30 degrees flip angle, a 20 x 20-cm FOV, a 512 x 288 matrix, and a 1.5-mm section thickness for the SPGR technique. Tumor appearance and depiction of surrounding anatomy, including the cranial nerves, were evaluated. Tumor volumes were measured by manual tracing. RESULTS: Both sequences clearly identified tumors that ranged in size from 0.06 to 3.0 cm3. Measurements on both sequences agreed, on average, within 14%. The information from both sequences was complementary. SIMCAST usually delineated the CSF spaces better, whereas SPGR more clearly showed the tumor/brain boundary. CONCLUSION: SIMCAST and SPGR are suitable for tumor detection and volume measurements. SPGR has somewhat better contrast, but SIMCAST excels at depicting the surrounding anatomy and tumor involvement of the seventh and eighth cranial nerves. (+info)
Incidental detection of hippocampal sclerosis on MR images: is it significant?
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The prevalence of hippocampal sclerosis in the general nonepileptic patient population is not well described. While reports of its association with partial complex seizures are abundant, its absence in nonafflicted patients is generally presumed but not well documented. To test the hypothesis that hippocampal sclerosis is specific for epilepsy, we reviewed the MR imaging studies of 207 patients referred for hearing loss to determine whether high-resolution MR imaging could detect unsuspected hippocampal sclerosis in nonepileptic patients. METHODS: Our institution screens patients with hearing loss by using high-resolution coronal and axial temporal bone MR imaging that includes the hippocampus within the imaging volume. We retrospectively reviewed 207 studies randomly selected from this database. RESULTS: The hippocampus was normal in 205 patients; in the remaining two patients we identified one or more primary determinants for hippocampal sclerosis. Subsequent retrospective chart review revealed that both patients had had previously diagnosed seizure disorders. CONCLUSION: The imaging determinants of hippocampal sclerosis are not prevalent in nonepileptic patients. Incidental identification of hippocampal sclerosis on MR images is uncommon and significant, and should prompt further clinical investigation to exclude a seizure disorder. (+info)
Ocular complications of acoustic neuroma surgery.
AIM: To analyse the risk factors involved in the development of ocular complications after acoustic neuroma resection, in particular corneal complications and visual loss, and to identify measures that may reduce these. METHODS: 62 patients who underwent surgery for acoustic neuroma had a standardised ophthalmic examination and retrospective case note review. RESULTS: At final review (mean 37.6 months), although 38 patients reported ocular symptoms, only 22% saw 6/12 or worse. Patients with hypoaesthetic corneas had a higher incidence of corneal pathology (79%) than those with normal sensation (39%). Lagophthalmos increased the incidence of corneal pathology (to 80%); in those with normal closure, the incidence was only 46%. 20 patients required at least one ophthalmic surgical procedure. CONCLUSIONS: After acoustic neuroma resection patients place a considerable burden on the ophthalmologist. Immediate referral postoperatively, and frequent review of those with abnormal sensation may reduce the severity of long term ocular complications. (+info)
Isolated metastases of adenocarcinoma in the bilateral internal auditory meatuses mimicking neurofibromatosis type 2--case report.
A 56-year-old male with a history of lung cancer presented with isolated metastases of adenocarcinoma in the bilateral internal auditory meatuses (IAMs), mimicking the bilateral acoustic schwannomas of neurofibromatosis type 2, and manifesting as rapidly worsening tinnitus and bilateral hearing loss. Magnetic resonance imaging showed small tumors in both IAMs with no sign of leptomeningeal metastasis. The preoperative diagnosis was neurofibromatosis type 2. Both tumors were removed and the histological diagnoses were adenocarcinoma. Neuroimaging differentiation of a solitary metastatic IAM tumor from a benign tumor is difficult, although rapidly progressive eighth cranial nerve dysfunction suggests a malignant process. Metastases should be considered as a rare diagnostic possibility in a patient with small tumors in both IAMs. (+info)