(1/57) Adults with Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor: adverse effect of older age and primary extraosseous disease on outcome.

OBJECTIVE: To assess outcome and prognostic factors for survival of adults with Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). BACKGROUND: Ewing's sarcoma/PNET is a disease of childhood rarely seen in adults. Accordingly, there is a relative paucity of published literature pertaining to outcome for adults with this disease. METHODS: Between 1979 and 1996, 37 patients with newly diagnosed Ewing's sarcoma/PNET were evaluated and treated at the Adult Sarcoma Program at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham & Women's Hospital. Twenty-six patients had localized disease at presentation and 11 had metastatic disease. All but two patients received multiagent chemotherapy. Local treatment consisted of surgery (7 patients), surgery and radiation therapy (19), radiation therapy (6), or no local treatment (5). Median follow-up for living patients was 100 months (range 8 to 199). RESULTS: The 5-year survival rate for the group overall was 37%+/-9%. The 5-year local control rate was 85%+/-7%. Significant favorable predictors for survival on univariate analysis included localized disease at presentation, primary origin in bone, primary size <8 cm, and a favorable objective response to chemotherapy. Patients with localized disease had a 5-year survival rate of 49%+/-11% compared with 0% for those with metastatic disease at presentation. Multivariate analysis showed three significant independent predictors for death: metastatic disease at presentation, primary origin in extraosseous tissue versus bone, and age 26 years or older. CONCLUSION: Adult patients with Ewing's sarcoma/PNET at highest risk for death are those who are older than 26 years and have metastatic disease or an extraosseous primary tumor. The development of novel therapies should target these high-risk groups.  (+info)

(2/57) Chromosomal imbalances and DNA amplifications in SV40 large T antigen-induced primitive neuroectodermal tumor cell lines of the rat.

Comparative genomic in situ hybridization analysis of four cell lines derived from SV40 large T antigen-induced primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the rat revealed non-recurrent chromosomal copy number changes and DNA amplifications at chromosomal bands 2q34, 4q43qter and 15q12qter in cell lines TZ102, TZ103 and TZ107, respectively. Semi-quantitative PCR and western blot analysis demonstrated amplification and over-expression of the rat N-ras proto-oncogene in TZ102. Furthermore, all cell lines displayed aneuploid cell populations and variable chromosome numbers as assessed by flow cytometry and cytogenetics. These findings suggest that DNA amplification as well as genomic instability may contribute to the pathogenesis of SV40 large T antigen-induced primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the rat.  (+info)

(3/57) Stem cell factor is not essential for cell survival and proliferation of soft tissue sarcoma of neuroectodermal origin.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Stem cell factor (SCF), and its receptor (c-kit) play key roles in the expansion and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells, in melanoblasts and primordial germ cells, making it possible that SCF and c-kit are involved in neoplastic processes deriving from these cells. C-kit has been described to be expressed at different levels in neuroblastoma and in soft tissue sarcoma of neuroectodermal origin, and seems to be required for survival processes. In this study we investigate how c-kit expression is regulated and whether a SCF autocrine loop is essential for survival of sarcoma cell lines. DESIGN AND METHODS: C-kit modulation and internalization was evaluated incubating cells with rhSCF. Cell differentiation and proliferation experiments were performed to test whether c-kit expression is related to cell cycle progression or to differentiation processes. Cell cultures were treated with neutralizing antibody and antisense oligonucleotides in order to assess the possible significance of the SCF autocrine loop. RESULTS: In vitro SCF stimulation induces c-kit down-regulation; this phenomenon could be connected with receptor internalization, and new protein synthesis is necessary for its re-expression. The cell proliferation arrest in G0/G1 does not modify c-kit expression while down-regulation of c-kit was demonstrated after cells had been treated with differentiating agents. SCF neutralization does not influence either the S phase or apoptosis in sarcoma cell lines. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: In sarcoma cell lines, c-kit is regulated by differentiation processes; moreover our results suggest that c-kit activity, but probably not the SCF autocrine loop, is essential for survival of these cell lines.  (+info)

(4/57) Synovial sarcoma, histologically mimicking primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing's sarcoma at distant sites.

We report a case of synovial sarcoma (SS) showing unusual histology at distant sites. A 47-year-old man was aware of a tumor on the sole of his left foot. After preoperative chemotherapy with a diagnosis of SS, wide excision was performed. During postoperative chemotherapy, multiple tumorous lesions developed in the bone (including the whole spine) and both lungs. The patient died 1 year later. Histologically, the excised tumor of the foot showed a biphasic cellular pattern typical of SS, whereas at autopsy the bone and lung lesions were composed only of undifferentiated small round cells with cytoplasmic fibrillar processes. Homer-Wright rosettes were also observed. Immunohistochemically, 80% of the bone and lung tumor cells expressed MIC2 protein homogeneously. To clarify whether the bone and lung round cell tumors were metastatic lesions or second malignancies, especially primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)/Ewing's sarcoma (ES), we performed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of tumor type-specific fusion gene transcripts. The SYT/SSX fusion transcript was identified in both the foot and lung lesions, whereas the EWS/FLI1 transcript was not detected in either lesion. Therefore, we concluded that the multiple bone and lung tumors were poorly differentiated metastatic tumors, which arose from the SS of the foot. We also conclude that the identification of chimeric fusion transcripts can be successfully applied to poorly differentiated sarcomas and will help in the differential diagnosis of tumors that cannot be distinguished by conventional morphological examinations. Also, it should be remembered that cytoplasmic staining for MIC2 protein may occur in sarcomas other than PNET/ES.  (+info)

(5/57) Targeted oncogenesis reveals a distinct tissue-specific utilization of alternative promoters of the human mineralocorticoid receptor gene in transgenic mice.

The human mineralocorticoid receptor (hMR) is a nuclear receptor mediating aldosterone action, whose expression is driven by two alternative promoters, P1 and P2, flanking the two first 5'-untranslated exons. In vivo characterization of hMR regulatory regions was performed by targeted oncogenesis in mice using P1 or P2 directing expression of the large T antigen of SV40 (TAg). While transgenic P1.TAg founders rapidly developed lethal hibernomas from brown fat, cerebral primitive neuroectodermal tumors and facial leiomyosarcomas occurred in P2.TAg mice. Quantitative analyses of mouse MR (mMR) and transgene expression indicate that P1 promoter was transcriptionally active in all MR-expressing tissues, directing strong TAg expression in testis and salivary glands, moderate in lung, brain, uterus, liver, and heart but, unlike mMR, rather low in colon and kidney. Importantly, the renal transgene expression colocalized with mMR in the distal nephron. In contrast, P2 promoter was approximately 10 times less potent than P1, with no activity in the brain and colon. Several immortalized cell lines were established from both neoplastic and normal tissues of transgenic mice. These cells exhibited differentiated characteristics and maintained MR expression, thus providing useful models for further studies exploring the widespread expression and functions of MR. Our results demonstrate that hMR gene expression in vivo is controlled by complex regulatory mechanisms involving distinct tissue-specific utilization of alternative promoters.  (+info)

(6/57) A splice variant of the neuron-restrictive silencer factor repressor is expressed in small cell lung cancer: a potential role in derepression of neuroendocrine genes and a useful clinical marker.

The neuron-restrictive silencer factor [NRSF (RE-1 silencing transcription factor/X box repressor)] is a transcriptional silencer, which we have previously implicated in deregulation of the vasopressin promoter in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Here we describe a novel splice variant of the NRSF transcript, which is highly expressed in SCLCs. The variant was detected in both established cell lines and primary SCLC cultures as well as in some primitive neuroectodermal tumor biopsies. It was present at very low levels in human brain tissue, non-SCLC tumors, and normal bronchial epithelium. This human splice variant, which is massively overexpressed in SCLCs, incorporates a 50-bp insert between exons 5 and 6, introducing a stop codon and predicting translation of a truncated NRSF isoform. We propose that the encoded isoform may antagonize repression of the vasopressin promoter and other "neuronal" genes with neuron-restrictive silencer elements in SCLCs. Thus, up-regulated expression of this NRSF isoform may be a key early factor in defining the neuroendocrine phenotype of these tumors. The NRSF splice variant represents a specific clinical marker that could prove useful in detection of the majority of SCLCs.  (+info)

(7/57) Aloe-emodin is a new type of anticancer agent with selective activity against neuroectodermal tumors.

Here we report that aloe-emodin (AE), a hydroxyanthraquinone present in Aloe vera leaves, has a specific in vitro and in vivo antineuroectodermal tumor activity. The growth of human neuroectodermal tumors is inhibited in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency without any appreciable toxic effects on the animals. The compound does not inhibit the proliferation of normal fibroblasts nor that of hemopoietic progenitor cells. The cytotoxicity mechanism consists of the induction of apoptosis, whereas the selectivity against neuroectodermal tumor cells is founded on a specific energy-dependent pathway of drug incorporation. Taking into account its unique cytotoxicity profile and mode of action, AE might represent a conceptually new lead antitumor drug.  (+info)

(8/57) Presence of new alternative exons in human and mouse Fli-1 genes.

The mouse Fli-1 proto-oncogene is activated by proviral integration of four murine leukemia retroviruses and its human counterpart is translocated (11,22) in Ewing tumors. We have identified two alternative exons 1 by RACE analysis from a human neuroectodermal tumor. Exons 1a and 1b are located respectively 1.3 and 2.5 kb upstream from the published exon 1. Translation of these alternative messengers is predicted to generate very similar proteins. The sequence upstream from exon 1b showed functional promoter activity. Exon 1b was not conserved in the mouse but was detected in every analyzed human cell, whereas exon 1a was present only in a subset of them and also in various mouse cell lines. These results suggest that both mouse and human Fli-1 gene expression might be under the control of several independent promoter regions.  (+info)