Ethylnitrosourea-induced development of malignant schwannomas in the rat: two distinct loci on chromosome of 10 involved in tumor susceptibility and oncogenesis.
Inbred rodent strains with differing sensitivity to experimental tumor induction provide model systems for the detection of genes that either are responsible for cancer predisposition or modify the process of carcinogenesis. Rats of the inbred BD strains differ in their susceptibility to the induction of neural tumors by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (EtNU). Newborn BDIX rats that are exposed to EtNU (80 microg/g body weight; injected s.c.) develop malignant schwannomas predominantly of the trigeminal nerves with an incidence >85%, whereas BDIV rats are entirely resistant. A T:A-->A:T transversion mutation at nucleotide 2012 of the neu (erbB-2) gene on chromosome 10, presumably the initial event in EtNU-induced schwannoma development, is later followed by loss of the wild-type neu allele. Genetic crosses between BDIX and BDIV rats served: (a) to investigate the inheritance of susceptibility; (b) to obtain animals informative for the mapping of losses of heterozygosity (LOH) in tumors with polymorphic simple sequence length polymorphisms (SSLPs); and (c) to localize genes associated with schwannoma susceptibility by linkage analysis with SSLPs. Schwannoma development was strongly suppressed in F1 animals (20% incidence). All of the F1 schwannomas displayed LOH on chromosome 10, with a consensus region on the telomeric tip encompassing D10Rat3, D10Mgh16 and D10Rat2 but excluding neu. A strong bias toward losing the BDIV alleles suggests the involvement of a BDIV-specific tumor suppressor gene(s). Targeted linkage analysis with chromosome 10 SSLPs in F2 intercross and backcross animals localized schwannoma susceptibility to a region around D10Wox23, 30 cM centromeric to the tip. Ninety-four % of F1 tumors exhibited additional LOH at this region. Two distinct loci on chromosome 10 may thus be connected with susceptibility to the induction and development of schwannomas in rats exposed to EtNU. (+info)
Schwannoma with features mimicking neuroblastoma: report of two cases with immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings.
OBJECTIVE: A study of two cases of a rare variant of benign schwannoma showing areas mimicking neuroblastoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET). METHODS: Sections of formalin fixed, paraffin embedded specimens were studied by tinctorial stains and immunohistochemistry, and the tissue retrieved from formalin was examined by electronmicroscopy in one case. RESULTS: The tumours were small and subcutaneous. Both showed features of benign schwannoma; one had a multinodular plexiform pattern. In addition, rosette-like structures consisting of collagenous cores surrounded by small round cells or slightly larger epithelioid cells were present. Tumour cells were positive for S100 protein, Leu7, and in one case GFAP, but were negative for neurofilament protein, synaptophysin, and MIC2. Type IV collagen surrounded individual cells. Electronmicroscopy in case 2 confirmed schwannian features (lamina, processes) and failed to show features of neuroblastoma (neuroendocrine granules). CONCLUSIONS: Benign schwannomas may contain rosette-like structures mimicking neuroblastoma/PNET. The techniques used confirmed schwannian differentiation only and eliminated neuroblastoma/PNET. These uncommon variants should be recognised by practising histopathologists to avoid erroneous diagnoses and inappropriate treatment. (+info)
Schwann cell hyperplasia and tumors in transgenic mice expressing a naturally occurring mutant NF2 protein.
Specific mutations in some tumor suppressor genes such as p53 can act in a dominant fashion. We tested whether this mechanism may also apply for the neurofibromatosis type-2 gene (NF2) which, when mutated, leads to schwannoma development. Transgenic mice were generated that express, in Schwann cells, mutant NF2 proteins prototypic of natural mutants observed in humans. Mice expressing a NF2 protein with an interstitial deletion in the amino-terminal domain showed high prevalence of Schwann cell-derived tumors and Schwann cell hyperplasia, whereas those expressing a carboxy-terminally truncated protein were normal. Our results indicate that a subset of mutant NF2 alleles observed in patients may encode products with dominant properties when overexpressed in specific cell lineages. (+info)
Probability of bilateral disease in people presenting with a unilateral vestibular schwannoma.
BACKGROUND: Some 4%-5% of those who develop vestibular schwannomas have neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Although about 10% of these patients present initially with a unilateral vestibular schwannoma, the risk for a patient with a truly sporadic vestibular schwannoma developing contralateral disease is unknown. METHODS: A United Kingdom survey of 296 patients with NF2 was reviewed for laterality of vestibular schwannoma at presentation and the presence of other NF2 related features. The time to presentation of bilateral disease was calculated for patients presenting with a unilateral tumour. Mutation analysis of the NF2 gene was carried out on all available cases presenting initially with unilateral disease. RESULTS: Of 240 patients with NF2 with vestibular schwannomas, 45 (18%; 32 sporadic, 13 familial) had either a unilateral tumour or delay in detection between the first and contralateral tumours. Among those tested for NF2 mutations, eight of 27 and nine of 13 were identified among sporadic and familial cases respectively. Sporadic cases showed a high female to male ratio and 19 of 32 have not as yet developed a contralateral tumour (mean 4.1 years after diagnosis of the first). Thirteen of 32 sporadic patients developed a contralateral tumour (mean 6.5 years after the first tumour diagnosis, range 0-22 years) compared with 11 of 13 familial patients (mean delay 5 years, range 0-16 years). Seven of the 45 patients had neither a family history of NF2 nor evidence of related tumours at initial presentation (six before the age of 35 years). CONCLUSION: The risk of patients with sporadic unilateral vestibular schwannomata developing a contralateral tumour in the absence of family history or other features of NF2 is low, but those presenting with other neurogenic tumours in addition to vestibular schwannoma are at high risk of harbouring an NF2 mutation in at least a proportion of their somatic cells. (+info)
Midline cerebellar cystic schwannoma : a case report.
An extremely unusual case of a cystic schwannoma in the region of the inferior vermis and posterior to the fourth ventricle in a fifteen year old boy is reported. The cystic tumour caused partial obstruction to the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid from fourth ventricle and resulted in development of supratentorial hydrocephalus. On investigations, the schwannoma simulated a Dandy-Walker cyst. The boy presented with symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. On surgery, the lesion was not arising from any cranial nerve, nor was it attached to brain parenchyma, blood vessel or to the dura. The possible histogenesis of the cystic schwannoma in a rare location is discussed. (+info)
Association of lower cranial nerve schwannoma with spinal ependymoma in ? NF2.
A 15 year old male, who had earlier been operated for intraspinal intramedullary ependymoma, subsequently developed a right cerebello pontine (CP) angle mass. A diagnosis of right CP angle ependymoma was considered, in view of established histology of previously operated spinal lesion. Histopathological examination of the well defined extra-axial mass, which was attached with ninth cranial nerve, however revealed a schwannoma. A diagnosis of Neurofibromatosis-2 (NF2) is strongly suspected, because of well established fact, that the spinal ependymomas may have association with lower cranial nerve schwannomas in NF2. Cranial and spinal MRI screening for early diagnosis of associated, asymptomatic lesions, in suspected cases of NF2, particularly in children, is recommended. (+info)
Ventral T-1 neurinoma removed via hemilaminectomy without costotransversectomy--case report.
A 39-year-old male presented with a spinal neurinoma originating from the T-1 anterior root and located ventral to the spinal cord. The tumor was removed by hemilaminectomy with only partial facetectomy without costotransversectomy. No stabilization was necessary, and no complications secondary to surgery occurred. Costotransversectomy is not necessary for neurinoma ventral to the spinal cord within the spinal canal at T-1 level because the transverse process protrudes more laterally and the spinal canal of the T-1 vertebra is wider than at other thoracic levels. (+info)
Paediatric presentation of type 2 neurofibromatosis.
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a highly penetrant autosomal dominant condition predisposing affected individuals to schwannomas and meningiomas. The proportion of children presenting with meningioma or schwannoma who have NF2 is not well described, and neither is the mode of presentation in most children with the inherited disease. AIMS: To determine the frequency of childhood meningioma and schwannoma cases caused by NF2 and the mode of presentation. METHODS: The records of the Manchester Children's Tumour Registry from 1954 were searched for cases of meningioma and schwannoma. Paediatric presentation in a large UK series of NF2 was also studied. RESULTS: 18% (61/334) of patients with NF2 on the UK database presented in the paediatric age group (0-15 years), frequently with the symptoms of an isolated tumour. More than half had no family history to alert the clinician to their susceptibility. Three of 22 children presenting with a meningioma on the Manchester Children's Tumour Registry have gone on to develop classic features of NF2. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should suspect NF2 in children presenting with meningioma, schwannoma, and skin features, such as neurofibromas/schwannomas, but fewer than 6 cafe au lait patches, who thus fall short of a diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 1. (+info)