Rat liver contains age-regulated cytosolic 3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulopyranosonic acid (Kdn).
Kdn (3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulopyranosonic acid), a unique deaminated member of the sialic acid family, has emerged as a new building block of glycoconjugates from a wide variety of organisms, ranging from bacteria to mammals. In particular, the presence of Kdn has been demonstrated in different rat organs and tissues, but not in liver. Here we report on the detection and quantitation of Kdn in rat liver and on its variations with postnatal development and aging. We have previously established the optimal conditions for derivatization of Kdn with 1,2-diamino-4, 5-methylene-dioxybenzene (DMB), and detection by reverse-phase HPLC. Analysis of whole liver homogenates and different subcellular fractions reveals that Kdn is fundamentally present in the cytosolic fraction as nucleotide precursor. The expression of Kdn, Neu5Gc, and Neu5Ac changes unevenly with age. While the content of Neu5Ac, the major species, and Neu5Gc decreases to a different extent from newborn to old animals, Kdn content decreases from newborn to trace amounts in adult rats and increases again with aging. Thus, expression of Kdn, Neu5Gc, and Neu5Ac appears to be independently regulated. (+info)
Cell-cell interactions: enhancement of glycosyl transferase ectoenzyme systems during Chlamydomonas gametic contact.
Glycosyl transferase ectoenzyme systems that transfer galactose, glucose, N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylneuraminic acid, mannose, and fucose have been detected on vegetative cells and gametes of Chlamydomonas moewusii. Gametes have higher levels of activity of the transferase ectoenzyme systems than morphologically identical vegetative cells, as determined by transfer of monosaccharide onto endogenous cell surface acceptors. When (plus) and (minus) gametes are mixed, there is a significant increase in the activity of transferase ectoenzyme systems. No enhancement in activity of transferase ectoenzyme systems occurs when (plus) and (minus) vegetative cells are mixed. Flagellar membrane vesicles obtained from (plus) and (minus) gametes show high activity of transferase ectoenzyme systems per mg of protein and also demonstrate enhanced activity upon mixing. Therefore, glycosyl transferases and acceptors seem to be located on the flagellar membrane and appear to have a function particularly related to gametic cells. The mechanism of cellular adhesion or recognition proposed by Roseman (1970, Chem. Phys. Lipids 5, 270-297), involving glycosyl transferases and acceptors, is strongly suggested by our data for the mating reaction in Chlamydomonas. (+info)
Conversion of cellular sialic acid expression from N-acetyl- to N-glycolylneuraminic acid using a synthetic precursor, N-glycolylmannosamine pentaacetate: inhibition of myelin-associated glycoprotein binding to neural cells.
Sialic acids are prominent termini of mammalian glycoconjugates and are key binding determinants for cell-cell recog-nition lectins. Binding of the sialic acid-dependent lectin, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), to nerve cells is implicated in the inhibition of nerve regeneration after injury. Therefore, blocking MAG binding to nerve cell sialoglycoconjugates might enhance nerve regeneration. Previously, we reported that certain sialoglycoconjugates bearing N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) but not N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) support MAG binding (Collins et al., 1997a). We now report highly efficient conversion of sialic acids on living neural cells from exclusively NeuAc to predominantly NeuGc using a novel synthetic metabolic precursor, N-glycolylmannosamine pentaacetate (Man-NGc-PA). When NG108-15 neuroblastoma-glioma hybrid cells, which normally express only NeuAc (and bind to MAG), were cultured in the presence of 1 mM ManNGcPA, they expressed 80-90% of their sialic acid precursor pool as NeuGc within 24 h. Within 5 days, 80% of their ganglioside-associated sialic acids and 70% of their glycoprotein-associated sialic acids were converted to NeuGc. Consistent with this result, treatment of NG108-15 cells with ManNGcPA resulted in nearly complete abrogation of MAG binding. These results demonstrate that ManNGcPA treatment efficiently alters the sialic acid structures on living cells, with a commensurate change in recognition by a physiologically important lectin. (+info)
Substitution of amino acid residue in influenza A virus hemagglutinin affects recognition of sialyl-oligosaccharides containing N-glycolylneuraminic acid.
Sialic acids are essential components of cell surface receptors used by influenza viruses. To determine the molecular mechanisms of viral recognition of two major species of sialic acids, N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), we tested the binding reactivity of nine human H3 influenza A viruses to sialylglycolipids containing type II sugar chain and different molecular species of terminal sialic acids. All human H3 viruses tested except A/Memphis/1/71 bound both Neu5Ac and Neu5Gc. Nucleotide sequence analysis suggests that amino acids at 143, 155, and 158 are linked to the viral recognition of Neu5Gc. (+info)
Loss of N-glycolylneuraminic acid in human evolution. Implications for sialic acid recognition by siglecs.
The common sialic acids of mammalian cells are N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Humans are an exception, because of a mutation in CMP-sialic acid hydroxylase, which occurred after our common ancestor with great apes. We asked if the resulting loss of Neu5Gc and increase in Neu5Ac in humans alters the biology of the siglecs, which are Ig superfamily members that recognize sialic acids. Human siglec-1 (sialoadhesin) strongly prefers Neu5Ac over Neu5Gc. Thus, humans have a higher density of siglec-1 ligands than great apes. Siglec-1-positive macrophages in humans are found primarily in the perifollicular zone, whereas in chimpanzees they also occur in the marginal zone and surrounding the periarteriolar lymphocyte sheaths. Although only a subset of chimpanzee macrophages express siglec-1, most human macrophages are positive. A known evolutionary difference is the strong preference of mouse siglec-2 (CD22) for Neu5Gc, contrasting with human siglec-2, which binds Neu5Ac equally well. To ask when the preference for Neu5Gc was adjusted in the human lineage, we cloned the first three extracellular domains of siglec-2 from all of the great apes and examined their preference. In fact, siglec-2 had evolved a higher degree of recognition flexibility before Neu5Gc was lost in humans. Human siglec-3 (CD33) and siglec-6 (obesity-binding protein 1) also recognize both Neu5Ac and Neu5Gc, and siglec-5 may have some preference for Neu5Gc. Others showed that siglec-4a (myelin-associated glycoprotein) prefers Neu5Ac over Neu5Gc. Thus, the human loss of Neu5Gc may alter biological processes involving siglec-1, and possibly, siglec-4a or -5. (+info)
Protein kinase C phosphorylates and regulates UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase.
UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase) is the key enzyme in the de novo synthesis pathway of neuraminic acid, which is widely expressed as a terminal carbohydrate residue on glycoconjugates. UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase is a bifunctional enzyme and catalyzes the first two steps of neuraminic acid synthesis in the cytosol, the conversion of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to ManAc and the phosphorylation to ManAc-6-phosphate. So far, regulation of this essential enzyme by posttranslational modification has not been shown. Since UDP-N-acetylglucosamine is a cytosolic protein containing eight conserved motifs for protein kinase C (PKC), we investigated whether its enzymatic activity might be regulated by phosphorylation by PKC. We showed that UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase interacts with several isoforms of PKC in mouse liver and is phosphorylated in vivo. Furthermore, PKC phosphorylates UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase and this phosphorylation results in an upregulation of the UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase enzyme activity. (+info)
Structural analysis of trisialylated biantennary glycans isolated from mouse serum transferrin. Characterization of the sequence Neu5Gc(alpha 2-3)Gal(beta 1-3)[Neu5Gc(alpha 2-6)]GlcNAc(beta 1-2)Man.
Five variants of mouse serum transferrin (mTf, designated mTf-I to mTf-V) with respect to carbohydrate composition have been isolated by DEAE-cellulose chromatography in the following relative percentages: mTf-I: 0.55; mTf-II: 0.79; mTf-III: 71.80; mTf-VI: 21. 90 and mTf-V: 4.96. The primary structures of the major glycans from mTf-III and mTf-IV were determined by methylation analysis and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. All glycans possessed a common trimannosyl-N,N'-diacetylchitobiose core. From the glycovariant mTf-III two isomers of a conventional biantennary N-acetyllactosamine type were isolated, in which two N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) residues are linked to galactose either by a (alpha 2-6) or (alpha 2-3) linkage. A subpopulation of this glycovariant contains a fucose residue (alpha 1-6)-linked to GlcNAc-1. The structure of the major glycan found in variant mTf-IV contained an additional Neu5Gc and possessed the following new type of linkage: Neu5Gc(alpha 2-3)Gal(beta 1-3)[Neu5Gc(alpha 2-6)]GlcNAc(beta 1-2 )Man(alpha 1-3). In addition to this glycan, a minor compound contained the same antennae linked to Man(alpha 1-6). In fraction mTf-V, which was found to be very heterogeneous by (1)H NMR analysis, carbohydrate composition and methylation analysis suggested the presence of tri'-antennary glycans sialylated by Neu5Gc alpha-2,6- and alpha-2, 3-linked to the terminal galactose residues. In summary, mTf glycans differed from those of other analyzed mammalian transferrins by the presence of Neu5Gc and by a Neu5Gc(alpha 2-6)GlcNAc linkage in trisialylated biantennary structures, reflecting in mouse liver, a high activity of CMP-Neu5Ac hydroxylase and (alpha 2-6)GlcNAc sialyltransferase. (+info)
Incorporation of N-propanoylneuraminic acid leads to calcium oscillations in oligodendrocytes upon the application of GABA.
Sialylation of glycoproteins and glycolipids plays an important role during development, regeneration and pathogenesis. It has been shown that unnatural sialylation within glial cell cultures can have distinct effects on their proliferation and antigenic profiles. These cultures metabolize N-propanoylmannosamine (N-propanoylneuraminic acid precursor=P-NAP), a synthetic non-physiological precursor of neuraminic acid, resulting in the expression of N-propanoylneuraminic acid in glycoconjugates of their cell membranes [Schmidt, C., Stehling, P., Schnitzer, J., Reutter, W. and Horstkorte, R. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 19146-19152]. To determine whether these biochemically engineered sialic acids influence calcium concentrations in cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage, mixed glial cultures of oligodendrocytes growing on top of an astrocyte monolayer were exposed to glutamate, histamine, adrenaline, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), high potassium (high K(+)) and ATP. Calcium responses in P-NAP-treated oligodendrocytes were determined by confocal microscopy with the calcium indicator fluo-3 AM, and compared with control cultures. We showed that P-NAP differentially modulated the calcium responses of individual oligodendrocytes when GABA was applied. GABA induced calcium oscillations with up to four spikes per min in 60% of oligodendrocytes when treated with P-NAP. (+info)