Further evidence that prostaglandins inhibit the release of noradrenaline from adrenergic nerve terminals by restriction of availability of calcium.
1 Guinea-pig vasa deferentia were continuously superfused after labelling the transmitter stores with [3H](-)-noradrenaline. Release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline was induced by transmural nerve stimulation. 2 Prostglandin E2 (14 nM) drastically reduced the release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline, while tetraethylammonium (2 mM), rubidium (6 mM), phenoxybenzamine (3 muM) each in the presence or absence of Uptake 1 or 2 blockade, and prolonged pulse duration (from 0.5 to 2.0 ms) all significantly increased the release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline per nerve impulse. 3 The inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on evoked release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline was significantly reduced by tetraethylammonium, rubidium and prolonged pulse duration, whilst it was actually enhanced by phenoxybenzamine. This indicates that increased release of noradrenaline per nerve impulse does not per se counteract the inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2. 4 It is concluded that tetraethylammonium, rubidium and prolonged pulse duration counteracted the inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on T3H]-(-)-noradrenaline release by promoting calcium influx during the nerve action potential. The results are consistent with, and add more weight to the view that prostaglandins inhibit the release of noradrenaline by restriction of calcium availability. (+info)
Facilitatory beta2-adrenoceptors on cholinergic and adrenergic nerve endings of the guinea pig trachea.
Using electrical field stimulation of epithelium-denuded intact guinea pig tracheal tube preparations, we studied the presence and role of prejunctional beta2-adrenoceptors by measuring evoked endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE) release directly. Analysis of ACh and NE was through two HPLC systems with electrochemical detection. Electrical field stimulation (150 mA, 0.8 ms, 16 Hz, 5 min, biphasic pulses) released 29.1 +/- 2.5 pmol ACh/g tissue and 70.2 +/- 6.2 pmol NE/g tissue. Preincubation for 15 min with the selective beta2-adrenoceptor agonist fenoterol (1 microM) increased both ACh and NE overflow to 178 +/- 28 (P < 0.01) and 165 +/- 12% (P < 0.01), respectively, of control values, increases that were abolished completely by the selective beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI-118551 (1 microM). Further experiments with increasing fenoterol concentrations (0.1-100 microM) and different preincubation periods (1, 5, and 15 min) showed a strong and concentration-dependent facilitation of NE release, with maximum response levels decreasing (from nearly 5-fold to only 2.5-fold of control value) with increasing agonist contact time. In contrast, sensitivity of facilitatory beta2-adrenoceptors on cholinergic nerves to fenoterol gradually increased when the incubation period was prolonged; in addition, a bell-shaped concentration-response relationship was found at 15 min of preincubation. Fenoterol concentration-response relationships (15-min agonist preincubation) in the presence of atropine and yohimbine (1 microM each) were similar in the case of NE release, but in the case of ACh release, the bell shape was lost. The results indicate a differential capacity and response time profile of facilitatory prejunctional beta2-adrenoceptors on adrenergic and cholinergic nerve terminals in the guinea pig trachea and suggest that the receptors on adrenergic nerves are more susceptible to desensitization. (+info)
Stimulus-secretion coupling in neurohypophysial nerve endings: a role for intravesicular sodium?
It is generally accepted that Ca is essentially involved in regulated secretion, but the role of this cation, as well as others such as Na, is not well understood. An illustrative example occurs in neurohypophysial secretion, where an experimentally induced increase in the cytosolic concentration of Na+ can induce continuous neuropeptide release. In contrast, an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ will have only a transient stimulatory effect. The secretion-promoting targets for Ca2+ are not known; they may be cytosolic, as is usually assumed, but they may also be intravesicular, especially in view of evidence that Ca-rich secretory vesicles are preferentially secreted. In the present work, we have investigated the movements of these cations into and out of secretory vesicles during stimulus-secretion coupling. Isolated rat neurohypophysial nerve endings were stimulated by potassium (55 mM) depolarization, and at 6 min (peak secretion) and 20 min after the onset of stimulation, the elemental content of individual secretory vesicles was measured by quantitative x-ray microanalysis. A depolarization-induced transient increase in intravesicular Na+ concentration was found to coincide with the onset of secretion. Moreover, only a predicted small fraction of peripheral vesicles-presumably the docked ones-were Na+-loaded. The low sulfur concentration of Na+-rich vesicles most likely resulted from vesicle swelling. The results suggest that high intravesicular Na+ concentrations in docked vesicles, occurring by Na+/Ca2+ exchange or by transient fusion pore opening, is a proximal event in exocytosis. (+info)
Quantal secretion and nerve-terminal cable properties at neuromuscular junctions in an amphibian (Bufo marinus).
The effect of a conditioning depolarizing current pulse (80-200 micros) on quantal secretion evoked by a similar test pulse at another site was examined in visualized motor-nerve terminal branches of amphibian endplates (Bufo marinus). Tetrodotoxin (200 nM) and cadmium (50 microM) were used to block voltage-dependent sodium and calcium conductances. Quantal release at the test electrode was depressed at different distances (28-135 microm) from the conditioning electrode when the conditioning and test pulses were delivered simultaneously. This depression decreased when the interval between conditioning and test current pulses was increased, until, at an interval of approximately 0.25 ms, it was negligible. At no time during several thousand test-conditioning pairs, for electrodes at different distances apart (28-135 microm) on the same or contiguous terminal branches, did the electrotonic effects of quantal release at one electrode produce quantal release at the other. Analytic and numerical solutions were obtained for the distribution of transmembrane potential at different sites along terminal branches of different lengths for current injection at a point on a terminal branch wrapped in Schwann cell, in the absence of active membrane conductances. Solutions were also obtained for the combined effects of two sites of current injection separated by different time delays. This cable model shows that depolarizing current injections of a few hundred microseconds duration produce hyperpolarizations at approximately 30 microm beyond the site of current injection, with these becoming larger and occurring at shorter distances the shorter the terminal branch. Thus the effect of a conditioning depolarizing pulse at one site on a subsequent test pulse at another more than approximately 30 microm away is to substantially decrease the absolute depolarization produced by the latter, provided the interval between the pulses is less than a few hundred microseconds. It is concluded that the passive cable properties of motor nerve terminal branches are sufficient to explain the effects on quantal secretion by a test electrode depolarization of current injections from a spatially removed conditioning electrode. (+info)
Synaptic vesicle dynamics in rat fast and slow motor nerve terminals.
We have investigated whether rat motor nerve terminals with different in vivo activity patterns also have different vesicle trafficking characteristics. To do this, we monitored, using combined optical and electrical techniques, the rate of exocytosis (during different frequencies and patterns of activity), the releasable pool size, and the recycle time of synaptic vesicles in terminals on soleus (slow-twitch) and extensor digitorum longus [(EDL); fast-twitch] muscle fibers. EDL terminals had a higher initial quantal content (QC) than soleus, but during tonic or phasic stimulation at 20-80 Hz, EDL QC ran down to a greater extent than soleus QC. By recording loss of fluorescence from exocytosing vesicles labeled with the dye FM1-43, EDL terminals were found to destain faster than those in soleus. Simultaneous intracellular recording of end plate potentials, to count the number of vesicles released, permitted estimation of the total vesicle pool (VP) size and the recycle time by combining the optical and electrophysiological data. Soleus vesicle pool was larger than EDL, but recycle time was not significantly different. These terminals, therefore, are adapted to their in vivo activity patterns by alterations in QC and VP size but not recycle time. (+info)
Reorganization of cholinergic terminals in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus in transgenic mice carrying mutated presenilin-1 and amyloid precursor protein transgenes.
Cholinergic deficits are one of the most consistent neuropathological landmarks in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have examined transgenic mouse models (PS1M146L, APPK670N,M671L) and a doubly transgenic line (APPK670N,M671L + PS1M146L) that overexpress mutated AD-related genes [presenilin-1 (PS1) and the amyloid precursor protein (APP)] to investigate the effect of AD-related gene overexpression and/or amyloidosis on cholinergic parameters. The size of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and the pattern of cholinergic synapses in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex were revealed by immunohistochemical staining for choline acetyltransferase and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, respectively. At the time point studied (8 months), no apparent changes in either the size or density of cholinergic synapses were found in the PS1M146L mutant relative to the nontransgenic controls. However, the APPK670N,M671L mutant showed a significant elevation in the density of cholinergic synapses in the frontal and parietal cortices. Most importantly, the double mutant (APPK670N,M671L + PS1M146L), which had extensive amyloidosis, demonstrated a prominent diminution in the density of cholinergic synapses in the frontal cortex and a reduction in the size of these synapses in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Nonetheless, no significant changes in the size of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons were observed in these three mutants. This study shows a novel role of APP and a synergistic effect of APP and PS1 that correlates with amyloid load on the reorganization of the cholinergic network in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus at the time point studied. (+info)
Isolation of pure cholinergic nerve endings from the electric organ of Torpedo marmorata.
A rapid method for the preparation of highly purified cholinergic nerve endings from the electric organ of Torpedo is described. The endings retain their cytoplasmic components, as shown by biochemical and morphological observations. The homogeneity of these synaptosomes make them a useful tool for further studies. (+info)
Specific alteration of spontaneous GABAergic inhibition in cerebellar purkinje cells in mice lacking the potassium channel Kv1. 1.
In the cerebellum, the basket cell innervation on Purkinje cells provides a major GABAergic inhibitory control of the single efferent output from the cerebellum. The Shaker-type K channel Kv1.1 is localized at the axon arborization preceding the terminal of the basket cells and is therefore a potential candidate for regulating the GABAergic inhibition. In this study, we directly assess this role of Kv1.1 by electrophysiological analysis of Kv1.1 null mutant mice. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) were made from Purkinje cells in thin cerebellar slices from postnatal day (P)10-15 Kv1.1-null mutants using wild-type littermates as controls. The null mutation confers a very specific change in the sIPSC: the frequency increases about twofold, without accompanying changes in the mean and variance of its amplitude distribution. The frequency and amplitude of the miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) are unaffected. Spontaneous firing rate of the basket cells is unaltered. Evoked IPSC does not show multiple activity in the mutants. Motor skills tests show that Kv1.1 null mice display a compromised ability to maintain balance on a thin stationary rod. We conclude that the Kv1.1 null mutation results in a persistent elevation of the tonic inhibitory tone on the cerebellum Purkinje cell efferent and that this is not fully compensated for by residual Shaker-type channels. We further suggest that the increase in inhibitory tone in the mutants might underlie the behavioral deficits. At the cellular level, we propose that Kv1.1 deletion enhances excitability of the basket cells by selectively enhancing the likelihood of action potential propagation past axonal branch points. (+info)