(1/43) Neoplasia in zebrafish (Danio rerio) treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene by two exposure routes at different developmental stages.
Using zebrafish, Danio rerio, initial pioneering work in the 1960s revealed carcinogen responsiveness of fish, yet very few subsequent tumorigenesis investigations have utilized this species. We exposed embryos (60 hours postfertilization) and fry (3 week posthatch) to 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) by immersion in aqueous solutions for 24 hours, at concentrations of 0-1 or 0-5 ppm (mg/L), respectively. Juvenile zebrafish 2 months posthatch were fed a diet containing 0-1,000 ppm DMBA for 4 months. Fish were sampled for histologic evaluation at 7-12 months after the onset of carcinogen treatment. Fry were most responsive to DMBA and showed the widest diversity of target tissues and histologic types of neoplasia, having several types of epithelial, mesenchymal, and neural neoplasia. The principal target tissues for carcinogenic response were liver following embryo or fry exposure, with gill and blood vessel the second and third most responsive tissues in fry. Intestine was the primary target and gill a secondary target in fish that received dietary DMBA as juveniles. These studies indicate that young zebrafish are most responsive to DMBA, showing a greater diversity of neoplasm types than rainbow trout. Thus, zebrafish are a valuable model system in which to study mechanistic aspects of the carcinogenesis process. (+info)
(2/43) Neoplasia in zebrafish (Danio rerio) treated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine by three exposure routes at different developmental stages.
We exposed embryos (83 hours postfertilizaton) and fry (3 weeks posthatch) to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) by immersion in aqueous solutions of 0-10 ppm for 1 hour (embryo) or 0-2 ppm for 24 hours (fry). Zebrafish embryos were microinjected with MNNG at levels of 0 or 96 ng/egg. Diets containing 0-2,000 ppm MNNG were fed to juvenile zebrafish for 3 months beginning at 2 months posthatch. Fish were sampled for histopathologic study at 6-12 months after initiation of carcinogen exposure. Embryos and fry were both quite responsive to MNNG; however, juvenile zebrafish were remarkably refractory to MNNG-induced neoplasia. Principal target organs in zebrafish treated as embryos with MNNG were liver and testis, with hepatocellular adenoma the most prevalent hepatic neoplasm. A variety of mesenchymal neoplasms occurred in zebrafish following embryo exposure to MNNG, including chondroma, hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma. Testis and blood vessels were primary target organs for MNNG following fry exposure, with seminoma, hemangioma, hemangiosarcoma, and various other epithelial and mesenchymal neoplasms occurring. The zebrafish is a responsive, cost-effective lower vertebrate model system in which to study mechanisms of carcinogenesis. (+info)
(3/43) Down-regulation of caveolin-1, a candidate tumor suppressor gene, in sarcomas.
Caveolae are plasma membrane microdomains that have been implicated in the regulation of several intracellular signaling pathways. Previous studies suggest that caveolin-1, the main structural protein of caveolae, could function as a tumor suppressor. Caveolin-1 is highly expressed in terminally differentiated mesenchymal cells including adipocytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. To study whether caveolin-1 is a possible tumor suppressor in human mesenchymal tumors, we have analyzed the expression using immunohistochemistry in normal mesenchymal tissues, 22 benign and 79 malignant mesenchymal tumors. Caveolin-1 was found to be expressed in fibromatoses, leiomyomas, hemangiomas, and lipomas at high levels comparable to normal mesenchymal tissues. The expression of caveolin-1 was slightly reduced in four of six well-differentiated liposarcomas and strongly reduced or lost in three of three fibrosarcomas, 17 of 20 leiomyosarcomas, 16 of 16 myxoid/round cell/pleomorphic liposarcomas, five of eight angiosarcomas, 15 of 18 malignant fibrous histiocytomas, and eight of eight synovial sarcomas. The immunohistochemical findings were confirmed by Western blot analysis in a number of tumors. High levels of both the 24-kd [alpha]- and the 21-kd [beta]-isoform of caveolin-1 were detected in the nontumorigenic human fibroblast cell line IMR-90. In contrast, in HT-1080 human fibrosarcoma cells, caveolin-1 is strongly down-regulated. We show that the [alpha]-isoform of caveolin-1 is potently up-regulated in HT-1080 cells by inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase-signaling pathway with the specific inhibitor PD 98059, whereas the specific inhibitor of DNA methylation 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine only marginally up-regulates caveolin-1. In addition, re-expression of caveolin-1 in HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells potently inhibited colony formation. From these we conclude that caveolin-1 is likely to act as a tumor suppressor gene in human sarcomas. (+info)
(4/43) The beta-chemokine receptor D6 is expressed by lymphatic endothelium and a subset of vascular tumors.
The lymphatic vessels (lymphatics) play an important role in channeling fluid and leukocytes from the tissues to the secondary lymphoid organs. In addition to driving leukocyte egress from blood, chemokines have been suggested to contribute to leukocyte recirculation via the lymphatics. Previously, we have demonstrated that binding sites for several pro-inflammatory beta-chemokines are found on the endothelial cells (ECs) of lymphatics in human dermis. Here, using the MIP-1alpha isoform MIP-1alphaP, we have extended these studies to further support the contention that the in situ chemokine binding to afferent lymphatics exhibits specificity akin to that observed in vitro with the promiscuous beta-chemokine receptor D6. We have generated monoclonal antibodies to human D6 and showed D6 immunoreactivity on the ECs lining afferent lymphatics, confirmed as such by staining serial skin sections with antibodies against podoplanin, a known lymphatic EC marker. In parallel, in situ hybridization on skin with antisense D6 probes demonstrated the expression of D6 mRNA by lymphatic ECs. D6-immunoreactive lymphatics were also abundant in mucosa and submucosa of small and large intestine and appendix, but not observed in several other organs tested. In lymph nodes, D6 immunoreactivity was present on the afferent lymphatics and also in subcapsular and medullary sinuses. Tonsilar lymphatic sinuses were also D6-positive. Peripheral blood cells and the ECs of blood vessels and high endothelial venules were consistently nonreactive with anti-D6 antibodies. Additionally, we have demonstrated that D6 immunoreactivity is detectable in some malignant vascular tumors suggesting they may be derived from, or phenotypically similar to, lymphatic ECs. This is the first demonstration of chemokine receptor expression by lymphatic ECs, and suggests that D6 may influence the chemokine-driven recirculation of leukocytes through the lymphatics and modify the putative chemokine effects on the development and growth of vascular tumors. (+info)
(5/43) Expression of nm23-H1 gene product in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and its association with vessel invasion and survival.
BACKGROUND: We assessed the nm23-H1 gene product expression and its relationship with lymphatic and blood vessel invasion in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 45 patients who were treated surgically were used in this study. Pathologists graded lymphatic and blood vessel invasion in each of the tissue samples. Expression of nm23-Hl gene product was determined using a specific monoclonal antibody. RESULTS: Expression of nm23-H1 gene product was present in 17 (37.8%) cases. We found an inverse correlation between nm23-H1 gene product expression and lymphatic vessel invasion, whereas no correlation between nm23-H1 gene product expression and blood vessel invasion. Overall survival rate was not different between nm23-H1 gene product positive and negative patients (p = 0.21). However, reduced expression of nm23-H1 gene product was associated with shorter overall survival in patients with involved lymph nodes (p < 0.05), but not in patients without involved lymph nodes (p = 0.87). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, there appears to be an inverse relationship between nm23-H1 gene product expression and lymphatic vessel invasion. Furthermore, nm23-H1 gene product expression might be a prognostic marker in patients with involved lymph nodes. Our data does not demonstrate any correlation between nm23-H1 gene product expression and blood vessel invasion. (+info)
(6/43) Gene expression profile in fibroblast growth factor 2-transformed endothelial cells.
Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) exerts paracrine and autocrine functions on endothelial cells. FGF2-overexpressing murine aortic endothelial cells (FGF2-T-MAE cells) induce opportunistic hemangioendothelioma-like tumors when inoculated in immunodeficient mice. To evaluate the impact of FGF2-mediated activation on gene expression profile in transformed endothelial cells, we performed subtractive suppression hybridization analysis between FGF2-T-MAE cells and parental MAE cells. The two cell populations were compared for differential gene expression also by gene macroarray hybridization with 32P-labeled cDNAs. The two approaches allowed the identification of 27 transcripts whose expression was upregulated by FGF2 in endothelial cells. With the exception of one unknown gene, the differentially expressed transcripts encoded for proteins involved in the modulation of cell cycle, differentiation, and cell adhesion. Among them, the stress-inducible genes A170, GADD45 and GADD153 are upregulated by FGF2 transfection or recombinant growth factor treatment. Their expression was also induced in vascular tumors originated by parental or FGF2-transfected MAE cells in nude mice. This study extends the number of genes involved in tumor angiogenesis and/or endothelial cell transformation, a finding with possible implications for the discovery of novel targets for angiostatic therapy. (+info)
(7/43) Primary intimal sarcoma of the aorta: role of transesophageal echocardiography.
Diagnosis of primary tumors of the aorta is difficult. A patient who had a primary intimal sarcoma of the aorta with metastasis presented with obstructive symptoms and computed tomography showed a thrombus-like mass in the aorta. However, transesophageal echocardiography revealed an inhomogeneous and echo-dense mass with an outer membrane, unlike a thrombus, and suggestive of a primary aortic tumor. Pathologic examination of specimens from exploration and autopsy revealed a primary intimal sarcoma. (+info)
(8/43) Coexistence of cystic intra-abdominal lymphangiomas and diffuse venous haemangiomas in adult life.
Diffuse haemangioma and intra-abdominal lymphangioma are rare in adults. In this case report, we present a 33-year-old female with coexisting multiple cutaneous and visceral cavernous haemangiomas and two huge intra-abdominal lymphangiomas of 25 and 35 cm in diameter. The organs involved were the liver, pericardium, renal hilus and bladder. She died due to disseminated intravascular coagulation and multiorgan failure, which resembled Kasabach-Merritt syndrome. The coexistence of generalised haemangiomas and intra-abdominal lymphangiomas and the lack of complaints until the age of 33 years makes her an unusual case in the literature. We also emphasise the other clinical conditions that should be considered in the differential diagnosis. (+info)